Environmental impact of nanomaterials in composite membranes: Life cycle assessment of algal membrane photoreactor using polyvinylidene fluoride – composite membrane

Woon Chan Chong, Ying Tao Chung, Teow Yeit Haan, Masniroszaime Md Zain, Ebrahim Mahmoudi, Abdul Wahab Mohammad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study assessed the environmental impacts of a composite polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (incorporating nanomaterials) and compared with neat PVDF membrane on algal membrane photoreactor (A-MPR) system's overall sustainability. The life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out using Simapro 8.4.0 with cradle-to-gate approach, including raw materials, equipment, transportation and electricity consumption using ReCiPe 1.13 (H) and IPCC 2013 GWP 100a methodology. From the LCA analysis, silver/graphene oxide - polyvinylidene fluoride (Ag/GO-PVDF) membrane fabrication showed higher environmental impact than the neat PVDF membrane fabrication due to the addition of Ag/GO nanohybrids into the polymer. However, the A-MPR system using the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane exhibited better environmental footprint due to the improved performance of the modified membrane in producing higher volume of permeate as the output. Therefore, the A-MPR system using Ag/GO-PVDF membrane had outweighed the additional environmental impact of the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane fabrication process. Energy demand was identified as the main environmental hotspot in the LCA analysis. Subsequently, sensitivity analysis was performed to find out the effect of various energy mix for electricity generation towards the environment. The analysis revealed that the energy source for electricity generation had significant influence on the overall sustainability of the A-MPR system. The use of grid with 100% renewable energy (hydropower and geothermal) and solar photovoltaic might be able to mitigate 94.8% and 97.5% of CO2 emission, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)591-600
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Volume202
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20 Nov 2018

Fingerprint

Composite membranes
Nanostructured materials
fluoride
Environmental impact
Life cycle
environmental impact
life cycle
membrane
Membranes
Electricity
electricity generation
Fabrication
Nanomaterials
Life cycle assessment
Membrane
Sustainable development
sustainability
footprint
Graphene
Sensitivity analysis

Keywords

  • Fossil fuel
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Membrane photoreactor
  • Microalgae
  • Nanomaterials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

Environmental impact of nanomaterials in composite membranes : Life cycle assessment of algal membrane photoreactor using polyvinylidene fluoride – composite membrane. / Chong, Woon Chan; Chung, Ying Tao; Yeit Haan, Teow; Zain, Masniroszaime Md; Mahmoudi, Ebrahim; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab.

In: Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 202, 20.11.2018, p. 591-600.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{83c1570299974e83aa071bb55c31d481,
title = "Environmental impact of nanomaterials in composite membranes: Life cycle assessment of algal membrane photoreactor using polyvinylidene fluoride – composite membrane",
abstract = "This study assessed the environmental impacts of a composite polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (incorporating nanomaterials) and compared with neat PVDF membrane on algal membrane photoreactor (A-MPR) system's overall sustainability. The life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out using Simapro 8.4.0 with cradle-to-gate approach, including raw materials, equipment, transportation and electricity consumption using ReCiPe 1.13 (H) and IPCC 2013 GWP 100a methodology. From the LCA analysis, silver/graphene oxide - polyvinylidene fluoride (Ag/GO-PVDF) membrane fabrication showed higher environmental impact than the neat PVDF membrane fabrication due to the addition of Ag/GO nanohybrids into the polymer. However, the A-MPR system using the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane exhibited better environmental footprint due to the improved performance of the modified membrane in producing higher volume of permeate as the output. Therefore, the A-MPR system using Ag/GO-PVDF membrane had outweighed the additional environmental impact of the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane fabrication process. Energy demand was identified as the main environmental hotspot in the LCA analysis. Subsequently, sensitivity analysis was performed to find out the effect of various energy mix for electricity generation towards the environment. The analysis revealed that the energy source for electricity generation had significant influence on the overall sustainability of the A-MPR system. The use of grid with 100{\%} renewable energy (hydropower and geothermal) and solar photovoltaic might be able to mitigate 94.8{\%} and 97.5{\%} of CO2 emission, respectively.",
keywords = "Fossil fuel, Life cycle assessment, Membrane photoreactor, Microalgae, Nanomaterials",
author = "Chong, {Woon Chan} and Chung, {Ying Tao} and {Yeit Haan}, Teow and Zain, {Masniroszaime Md} and Ebrahim Mahmoudi and Mohammad, {Abdul Wahab}",
year = "2018",
month = "11",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.121",
language = "English",
volume = "202",
pages = "591--600",
journal = "Journal of Cleaner Production",
issn = "0959-6526",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Environmental impact of nanomaterials in composite membranes

T2 - Life cycle assessment of algal membrane photoreactor using polyvinylidene fluoride – composite membrane

AU - Chong, Woon Chan

AU - Chung, Ying Tao

AU - Yeit Haan, Teow

AU - Zain, Masniroszaime Md

AU - Mahmoudi, Ebrahim

AU - Mohammad, Abdul Wahab

PY - 2018/11/20

Y1 - 2018/11/20

N2 - This study assessed the environmental impacts of a composite polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (incorporating nanomaterials) and compared with neat PVDF membrane on algal membrane photoreactor (A-MPR) system's overall sustainability. The life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out using Simapro 8.4.0 with cradle-to-gate approach, including raw materials, equipment, transportation and electricity consumption using ReCiPe 1.13 (H) and IPCC 2013 GWP 100a methodology. From the LCA analysis, silver/graphene oxide - polyvinylidene fluoride (Ag/GO-PVDF) membrane fabrication showed higher environmental impact than the neat PVDF membrane fabrication due to the addition of Ag/GO nanohybrids into the polymer. However, the A-MPR system using the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane exhibited better environmental footprint due to the improved performance of the modified membrane in producing higher volume of permeate as the output. Therefore, the A-MPR system using Ag/GO-PVDF membrane had outweighed the additional environmental impact of the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane fabrication process. Energy demand was identified as the main environmental hotspot in the LCA analysis. Subsequently, sensitivity analysis was performed to find out the effect of various energy mix for electricity generation towards the environment. The analysis revealed that the energy source for electricity generation had significant influence on the overall sustainability of the A-MPR system. The use of grid with 100% renewable energy (hydropower and geothermal) and solar photovoltaic might be able to mitigate 94.8% and 97.5% of CO2 emission, respectively.

AB - This study assessed the environmental impacts of a composite polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (incorporating nanomaterials) and compared with neat PVDF membrane on algal membrane photoreactor (A-MPR) system's overall sustainability. The life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out using Simapro 8.4.0 with cradle-to-gate approach, including raw materials, equipment, transportation and electricity consumption using ReCiPe 1.13 (H) and IPCC 2013 GWP 100a methodology. From the LCA analysis, silver/graphene oxide - polyvinylidene fluoride (Ag/GO-PVDF) membrane fabrication showed higher environmental impact than the neat PVDF membrane fabrication due to the addition of Ag/GO nanohybrids into the polymer. However, the A-MPR system using the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane exhibited better environmental footprint due to the improved performance of the modified membrane in producing higher volume of permeate as the output. Therefore, the A-MPR system using Ag/GO-PVDF membrane had outweighed the additional environmental impact of the Ag/GO-PVDF membrane fabrication process. Energy demand was identified as the main environmental hotspot in the LCA analysis. Subsequently, sensitivity analysis was performed to find out the effect of various energy mix for electricity generation towards the environment. The analysis revealed that the energy source for electricity generation had significant influence on the overall sustainability of the A-MPR system. The use of grid with 100% renewable energy (hydropower and geothermal) and solar photovoltaic might be able to mitigate 94.8% and 97.5% of CO2 emission, respectively.

KW - Fossil fuel

KW - Life cycle assessment

KW - Membrane photoreactor

KW - Microalgae

KW - Nanomaterials

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053074643&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053074643&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.121

DO - 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.08.121

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85053074643

VL - 202

SP - 591

EP - 600

JO - Journal of Cleaner Production

JF - Journal of Cleaner Production

SN - 0959-6526

ER -