Enhancement of chitosan-graphene oxide SPR sensor with a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure for lead(II) ion detection

Nur Hasiba Kamaruddin, Ahmad Ashrif A Bakar, Mohd Hanif Yaacob, Mohd Adzir Mahdi, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly Zan, Sahbudin Shaari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We demonstrate the enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique by implementing a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure in the chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) SPR sensor for lead(II) ion detection. The performance of the sensor is analyzed via SPR measurements, from which the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability are determined. The nanostructure layers are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We showed that the proposed structure has increased the shift in the SPR angle up to 3.5° within the range of 0.1-1 ppm due to the enhanced evanescent field at the sensing layer-analyte interface. This sensor also exhibits great repeatability which benefits from the stable multi-metallic nanostructure. The SNR value of 0.92 for 5 ppm lead(II) ion solution and reasonable linearity range up to that concentration shows that the tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor gives a good response towards the lead(II) ion solution. The CS-GO SPR sensor is also sensitive to at least a 10-5 change in the refractive index. The results prove that our proposed tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor demonstrates a strong performance and reliability for lead(II) ion detection in accordance with the standardized lead safety level for wastewater.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)177-184
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Surface Science
Volume361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2016

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Graphite
Chitosan
Surface plasmon resonance
Oxides
Graphene
Nanostructures
Lead
Ions
Sensors
Evanescent fields
Field emission
Raman spectroscopy
Atomic force microscopy
Refractive index
Signal to noise ratio
Wastewater
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
X ray diffraction
Scanning electron microscopy

Keywords

  • Chitosan
  • Graphene oxide
  • Lead(II) ion detection
  • Multi-metallic
  • Nanostructured
  • Surface plasmon resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Enhancement of chitosan-graphene oxide SPR sensor with a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure for lead(II) ion detection. / Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; A Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif; Yaacob, Mohd Hanif; Mahdi, Mohd Adzir; Zan, Mohd Saiful Dzulkefly; Shaari, Sahbudin.

In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 361, 15.01.2016, p. 177-184.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - We demonstrate the enhancement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique by implementing a multi-metallic layers of Au-Ag-Au nanostructure in the chitosan-graphene oxide (CS-GO) SPR sensor for lead(II) ion detection. The performance of the sensor is analyzed via SPR measurements, from which the sensitivity, signal-to-noise ratio and repeatability are determined. The nanostructure layers are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We showed that the proposed structure has increased the shift in the SPR angle up to 3.5° within the range of 0.1-1 ppm due to the enhanced evanescent field at the sensing layer-analyte interface. This sensor also exhibits great repeatability which benefits from the stable multi-metallic nanostructure. The SNR value of 0.92 for 5 ppm lead(II) ion solution and reasonable linearity range up to that concentration shows that the tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor gives a good response towards the lead(II) ion solution. The CS-GO SPR sensor is also sensitive to at least a 10-5 change in the refractive index. The results prove that our proposed tri-metallic CS-GO SPR sensor demonstrates a strong performance and reliability for lead(II) ion detection in accordance with the standardized lead safety level for wastewater.

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