Enhancement of 2-chlorophenol photocatalytic degradation in the presence Co2+-doped ZnO nanoparticles under direct solar radiation

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Abstract

The performance of Co2+-doped ZnO nanoparticles, prepared using the sol–gel method, for 2-chlorophenol degradation under direct solar radiation was investigated. Various parameters were investigated during the degradation process, namely solar intensity, Co2+ ion concentration, loading concentrations of Co2+-doped ZnO, and pH. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency increased when the initial concentration of 2-chlorophenol decreased; the optimum concentration was 50 mg/L under similar experimental conditions. Moreover, optimum values, established on a sunny day, were 0.75 wt% of Co2+, a 1 g/L loading concentration, and a pH of 6.0, respectively. The highest degradation efficiency observed was 95 %, after only 90 min of solar light irradiation. The mechanism of visible photocatalytic degradation using Co2+-doped ZnO was explained as a strong electronic interaction between Co2+, Co3+ and ZnO, and a promotion in the charge separation, which enhanced the degradation performance. The fragmentation of 2-chlorophenol under the optimal conditions was investigated using HPLC, comparing standards of all intermediate compounds. The pathway of the fragmentation was proposed as involving hydroxyhydroquinone, catechol, and phenol formation, which were then converted to non-toxic compounds such as oxalic acid and acetic acid with further decomposition to CO2 and H2O.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5219-5236
Number of pages18
JournalResearch on Chemical Intermediates
Volume42
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016

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Solar radiation
Nanoparticles
Degradation
Oxalic Acid
Phenol
Acetic Acid
2-chlorophenol
Irradiation
Ions
Decomposition

Keywords

  • 2-Chlorophenol
  • Nanoparticles
  • Solar
  • ZnO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

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abstract = "The performance of Co2+-doped ZnO nanoparticles, prepared using the sol–gel method, for 2-chlorophenol degradation under direct solar radiation was investigated. Various parameters were investigated during the degradation process, namely solar intensity, Co2+ ion concentration, loading concentrations of Co2+-doped ZnO, and pH. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency increased when the initial concentration of 2-chlorophenol decreased; the optimum concentration was 50 mg/L under similar experimental conditions. Moreover, optimum values, established on a sunny day, were 0.75 wt{\%} of Co2+, a 1 g/L loading concentration, and a pH of 6.0, respectively. The highest degradation efficiency observed was 95 {\%}, after only 90 min of solar light irradiation. The mechanism of visible photocatalytic degradation using Co2+-doped ZnO was explained as a strong electronic interaction between Co2+, Co3+ and ZnO, and a promotion in the charge separation, which enhanced the degradation performance. The fragmentation of 2-chlorophenol under the optimal conditions was investigated using HPLC, comparing standards of all intermediate compounds. The pathway of the fragmentation was proposed as involving hydroxyhydroquinone, catechol, and phenol formation, which were then converted to non-toxic compounds such as oxalic acid and acetic acid with further decomposition to CO2 and H2O.",
keywords = "2-Chlorophenol, Nanoparticles, Solar, ZnO",
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N2 - The performance of Co2+-doped ZnO nanoparticles, prepared using the sol–gel method, for 2-chlorophenol degradation under direct solar radiation was investigated. Various parameters were investigated during the degradation process, namely solar intensity, Co2+ ion concentration, loading concentrations of Co2+-doped ZnO, and pH. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency increased when the initial concentration of 2-chlorophenol decreased; the optimum concentration was 50 mg/L under similar experimental conditions. Moreover, optimum values, established on a sunny day, were 0.75 wt% of Co2+, a 1 g/L loading concentration, and a pH of 6.0, respectively. The highest degradation efficiency observed was 95 %, after only 90 min of solar light irradiation. The mechanism of visible photocatalytic degradation using Co2+-doped ZnO was explained as a strong electronic interaction between Co2+, Co3+ and ZnO, and a promotion in the charge separation, which enhanced the degradation performance. The fragmentation of 2-chlorophenol under the optimal conditions was investigated using HPLC, comparing standards of all intermediate compounds. The pathway of the fragmentation was proposed as involving hydroxyhydroquinone, catechol, and phenol formation, which were then converted to non-toxic compounds such as oxalic acid and acetic acid with further decomposition to CO2 and H2O.

AB - The performance of Co2+-doped ZnO nanoparticles, prepared using the sol–gel method, for 2-chlorophenol degradation under direct solar radiation was investigated. Various parameters were investigated during the degradation process, namely solar intensity, Co2+ ion concentration, loading concentrations of Co2+-doped ZnO, and pH. The photocatalytic degradation efficiency increased when the initial concentration of 2-chlorophenol decreased; the optimum concentration was 50 mg/L under similar experimental conditions. Moreover, optimum values, established on a sunny day, were 0.75 wt% of Co2+, a 1 g/L loading concentration, and a pH of 6.0, respectively. The highest degradation efficiency observed was 95 %, after only 90 min of solar light irradiation. The mechanism of visible photocatalytic degradation using Co2+-doped ZnO was explained as a strong electronic interaction between Co2+, Co3+ and ZnO, and a promotion in the charge separation, which enhanced the degradation performance. The fragmentation of 2-chlorophenol under the optimal conditions was investigated using HPLC, comparing standards of all intermediate compounds. The pathway of the fragmentation was proposed as involving hydroxyhydroquinone, catechol, and phenol formation, which were then converted to non-toxic compounds such as oxalic acid and acetic acid with further decomposition to CO2 and H2O.

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