Enhanced thermal stability of esterified lignin in different solvent mediums

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

In this study, soda alkali lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB-AL) and kenaf core (KC-AL) are esterified with maleic anhydride under two different conditions, namely i) pyridine at temperature of 120°C for 3h and ii) aqueous alkaline solution at room temperature for 4h. As a result, the weight percentage gain (WPG) of the esterified EFB-AL (EFB-EL) and esterified KC-AL (KC-EL) in pyridine demonstrated a higher compared to aqueous alkaline solution. The FT-IR results of EFB-EL and KC-EL in both solvents exhibited some changes at the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, the esterification process induced the carboxylic peak to appear in both alkali lignin samples. The outcome is confirmed by conducting H-NMR analysis, which demonstrated ester and carboxylic acid peaks within the spectral analysis. Finally, the TGA results showed both EFB-EL and KC-EL that are exposed to aqueous alkaline actually possessed better thermal stability and higher activation energy (Ea) compared to the esterified samples in pyridine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-49
Number of pages11
JournalPolymers from Renewable Resources
Volume9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Lignin
Pyridine
Thermodynamic stability
Alkalies
Maleic Anhydrides
Palm oil
Esterification
Maleic anhydride
Carboxylic Acids
Fruits
Carboxylic acids
Hydroxyl Radical
Spectrum analysis
Esters
Activation energy
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Temperature
pyridine

Keywords

  • Aqueous alkaline
  • Hydrolysis
  • Maleic anhydride
  • Pyridine
  • Weight percentage gain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

Enhanced thermal stability of esterified lignin in different solvent mediums. / Hashim, Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua; Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah.

In: Polymers from Renewable Resources, Vol. 9, No. 1, 01.01.2018, p. 39-49.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Zakaria, Sarani

AU - Chia, Chin Hua

AU - Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah

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N2 - In this study, soda alkali lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB-AL) and kenaf core (KC-AL) are esterified with maleic anhydride under two different conditions, namely i) pyridine at temperature of 120°C for 3h and ii) aqueous alkaline solution at room temperature for 4h. As a result, the weight percentage gain (WPG) of the esterified EFB-AL (EFB-EL) and esterified KC-AL (KC-EL) in pyridine demonstrated a higher compared to aqueous alkaline solution. The FT-IR results of EFB-EL and KC-EL in both solvents exhibited some changes at the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, the esterification process induced the carboxylic peak to appear in both alkali lignin samples. The outcome is confirmed by conducting H-NMR analysis, which demonstrated ester and carboxylic acid peaks within the spectral analysis. Finally, the TGA results showed both EFB-EL and KC-EL that are exposed to aqueous alkaline actually possessed better thermal stability and higher activation energy (Ea) compared to the esterified samples in pyridine.

AB - In this study, soda alkali lignin from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB-AL) and kenaf core (KC-AL) are esterified with maleic anhydride under two different conditions, namely i) pyridine at temperature of 120°C for 3h and ii) aqueous alkaline solution at room temperature for 4h. As a result, the weight percentage gain (WPG) of the esterified EFB-AL (EFB-EL) and esterified KC-AL (KC-EL) in pyridine demonstrated a higher compared to aqueous alkaline solution. The FT-IR results of EFB-EL and KC-EL in both solvents exhibited some changes at the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. Furthermore, the esterification process induced the carboxylic peak to appear in both alkali lignin samples. The outcome is confirmed by conducting H-NMR analysis, which demonstrated ester and carboxylic acid peaks within the spectral analysis. Finally, the TGA results showed both EFB-EL and KC-EL that are exposed to aqueous alkaline actually possessed better thermal stability and higher activation energy (Ea) compared to the esterified samples in pyridine.

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