Elevation of tumour markers TGF-β, M2-PK, OV-6 and AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-induced rats and their suppression by microalgae Chlorella vulgaris

Khaizurin Ajul Arifin, Suhaniza Sulaiman, Suhana Md Saad, Mohd Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Yasmin Anum Mohd Yusof

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Abstract

Background: Chlorella vulgaris (ChV), a unicellular green algae has been reported to have anticancer and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the chemopreventive effect of ChV on liver cancer induced rats by determining the level and expression of several liver tumour markers. Methods: Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 4 groups according to the diet given: control group (normal diet), ChV group with three different doses (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight), liver cancer- induced group (choline deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine in drinking water or CDE group), and the treatment group (CDE group treated with three different doses of ChV). Rats were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of experiment and blood and tissue samples were taken from all groups for the determination of tumour markers expression alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) and specific antigen for oval cells (OV-6). Results: Serum level of TGF-β increased significantly (p < 0.05) in CDE rats. However, ChV at all doses managed to decrease (p < 0.05) its levels to control values. Expressions of liver tumour markers AFP, TGF-β, M2-PK and OV-6 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tissues of CDE rats when compared to control showing an increased number of cancer cells during hepatocarcinogenesis. ChV at all doses reduced their expressions significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions:Chlorella vulgaris has chemopreventive effect by downregulating the expression of tumour markers M2-PK, OV-6, AFP and TGF-β, in HCC-induced rats.

Original languageEnglish
Article number879
JournalBMC Cancer
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2017

Fingerprint

Chlorella vulgaris
Microalgae
Pyruvate Kinase
alpha-Fetoproteins
Transforming Growth Factors
Tumor Biomarkers
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Liver Neoplasms
Diet
Ethionine
Chlorophyta
Liver
Choline
Drinking Water
Wistar Rats
Down-Regulation
Cell Count
Antioxidants
Body Weight
Antigens

Keywords

  • AFP
  • Chlorella vulgaris
  • Liver cancer
  • M-PK
  • OV-6
  • TGF-β

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

@article{378846575209465ca9917c14c5fe7214,
title = "Elevation of tumour markers TGF-β, M2-PK, OV-6 and AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-induced rats and their suppression by microalgae Chlorella vulgaris",
abstract = "Background: Chlorella vulgaris (ChV), a unicellular green algae has been reported to have anticancer and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the chemopreventive effect of ChV on liver cancer induced rats by determining the level and expression of several liver tumour markers. Methods: Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 4 groups according to the diet given: control group (normal diet), ChV group with three different doses (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight), liver cancer- induced group (choline deficient diet + 0.1{\%} ethionine in drinking water or CDE group), and the treatment group (CDE group treated with three different doses of ChV). Rats were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of experiment and blood and tissue samples were taken from all groups for the determination of tumour markers expression alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) and specific antigen for oval cells (OV-6). Results: Serum level of TGF-β increased significantly (p < 0.05) in CDE rats. However, ChV at all doses managed to decrease (p < 0.05) its levels to control values. Expressions of liver tumour markers AFP, TGF-β, M2-PK and OV-6 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tissues of CDE rats when compared to control showing an increased number of cancer cells during hepatocarcinogenesis. ChV at all doses reduced their expressions significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions:Chlorella vulgaris has chemopreventive effect by downregulating the expression of tumour markers M2-PK, OV-6, AFP and TGF-β, in HCC-induced rats.",
keywords = "AFP, Chlorella vulgaris, Liver cancer, M-PK, OV-6, TGF-β",
author = "{Ajul Arifin}, Khaizurin and Suhaniza Sulaiman and {Md Saad}, Suhana and {Ahmad Damanhuri}, {Mohd Hanafi} and {Wan Ngah}, {Wan Zurinah} and {Mohd Yusof}, {Yasmin Anum}",
year = "2017",
month = "12",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1186/s12885-017-3883-3",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
journal = "BMC Cancer",
issn = "1471-2407",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Elevation of tumour markers TGF-β, M2-PK, OV-6 and AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-induced rats and their suppression by microalgae Chlorella vulgaris

AU - Ajul Arifin, Khaizurin

AU - Sulaiman, Suhaniza

AU - Md Saad, Suhana

AU - Ahmad Damanhuri, Mohd Hanafi

AU - Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

AU - Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

PY - 2017/12/21

Y1 - 2017/12/21

N2 - Background: Chlorella vulgaris (ChV), a unicellular green algae has been reported to have anticancer and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the chemopreventive effect of ChV on liver cancer induced rats by determining the level and expression of several liver tumour markers. Methods: Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 4 groups according to the diet given: control group (normal diet), ChV group with three different doses (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight), liver cancer- induced group (choline deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine in drinking water or CDE group), and the treatment group (CDE group treated with three different doses of ChV). Rats were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of experiment and blood and tissue samples were taken from all groups for the determination of tumour markers expression alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) and specific antigen for oval cells (OV-6). Results: Serum level of TGF-β increased significantly (p < 0.05) in CDE rats. However, ChV at all doses managed to decrease (p < 0.05) its levels to control values. Expressions of liver tumour markers AFP, TGF-β, M2-PK and OV-6 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tissues of CDE rats when compared to control showing an increased number of cancer cells during hepatocarcinogenesis. ChV at all doses reduced their expressions significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions:Chlorella vulgaris has chemopreventive effect by downregulating the expression of tumour markers M2-PK, OV-6, AFP and TGF-β, in HCC-induced rats.

AB - Background: Chlorella vulgaris (ChV), a unicellular green algae has been reported to have anticancer and antioxidant effects. The aim of this study was to determine the chemopreventive effect of ChV on liver cancer induced rats by determining the level and expression of several liver tumour markers. Methods: Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were divided into 4 groups according to the diet given: control group (normal diet), ChV group with three different doses (50, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight), liver cancer- induced group (choline deficient diet + 0.1% ethionine in drinking water or CDE group), and the treatment group (CDE group treated with three different doses of ChV). Rats were killed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of experiment and blood and tissue samples were taken from all groups for the determination of tumour markers expression alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), M2-pyruvate kinase (M2-PK) and specific antigen for oval cells (OV-6). Results: Serum level of TGF-β increased significantly (p < 0.05) in CDE rats. However, ChV at all doses managed to decrease (p < 0.05) its levels to control values. Expressions of liver tumour markers AFP, TGF-β, M2-PK and OV-6 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tissues of CDE rats when compared to control showing an increased number of cancer cells during hepatocarcinogenesis. ChV at all doses reduced their expressions significantly (p < 0.05). Conclusions:Chlorella vulgaris has chemopreventive effect by downregulating the expression of tumour markers M2-PK, OV-6, AFP and TGF-β, in HCC-induced rats.

KW - AFP

KW - Chlorella vulgaris

KW - Liver cancer

KW - M-PK

KW - OV-6

KW - TGF-β

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DO - 10.1186/s12885-017-3883-3

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