Electro-transformation of mefenamic acid drug

a case study of kinetics, transformation products, and toxicity

Zainab Haider Mussa, Fouad Fadhil Al-Qaim, Ali Yuzir, Jalifah Latip

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Poor removal of many pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage treatment plants leads to their discharge into the receiving waters, where they may cause negative effects for aquatic environment and organisms. In this study, electrochemical removal process has been used as alternative method for removal of mefenamic acid (MEF). For our knowledge, removal of MEF using electrochemical process has not been reported yet. Effects of initial concentration of mefenamic acid, sodium chloride (NaCl), and applied voltage were evaluated for improvement of the efficiency of electrochemical treatment process and to understand how much electric energy was consumed in this process. Removal percentage (R%) was ranged between 44 and 97%, depending on the operating parameters except for 0.1 g NaCl which was 9.1%. Consumption energy was 0.224 Wh/mg after 50 min at 2 mg/L of mefenamic acid, 0.5 g NaCl, and 5 V. High consumption energy (0.433 Wh/mg) was observed using high applied voltage of 7 V. Investigation and elucidation of the transformation products were provided by Bruker software dataAnalysis using liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. Seven chlorinated and two non-chlorinated transformation products were investigated after 20 min of electrochemical treatment. However, all transformation products (TPs) were eliminated after 140 min. For the assessment of the toxicity, it was impacted by the formation of transformation products especially between 20 and 60 min then the inhibition percentage of E. coli bacteria was decreased after 80 min to be the lowest value.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Mefenamic Acid
Toxicity
drug
toxicity
kinetics
Kinetics
Acids
acid
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Aquatic Organisms
Energy utilization
Pharmaceutical Services
Sewage
Sewage treatment plants
Sodium Chloride
Liquid Chromatography
Liquid chromatography
Electric potential
Sodium chloride
Mass Spectrometry

Keywords

  • Chlorinated transformation products
  • Electrochemical treatment
  • LC-TOF/MS
  • Mefenamic acid
  • Solid phase extraction
  • Toxicity assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Electro-transformation of mefenamic acid drug : a case study of kinetics, transformation products, and toxicity. / Mussa, Zainab Haider; Al-Qaim, Fouad Fadhil; Yuzir, Ali; Latip, Jalifah.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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