Efficacy Study of Carrageenan as an Alternative Infused Material (Filler) in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Porous 3D Scaffold

Nor Syamimi Che Johari, Syazwan Aizad, Saiful Irwan Zubairi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL) method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% (w/v) were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00-9.20 and 0.047-1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30% to 14.95% (w/w) which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment). The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate (K) of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between 0.01±1.66 (mg/day) and 0.03±3.23 (mg/day). The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (p<0.05). The 3D infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) carrageenan concentration (S2) produced a moderate degradation rate of 0.02±1.55 (mg/day) with a sustained structural integrity up to 28 days. The carrageenan infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) was demonstrated to be the best 3D structure for a long-term cell culture (>2 weeks). In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be used in tissue engineering application and 3D cell culture model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5029194
JournalInternational Journal of Polymer Science
Volume2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Carrageenan
Scaffolds
Fillers
Viscosity
Seaweed
Degradation
poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-co-(3-hydroxyvalerate)
Gravimetric analysis
Bioelectric potentials
Composite materials
Rheology
Tissue engineering
Cell culture
Leaching
Drying
Casting
Gels
Dyes
Cells
Vacuum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

@article{aaa3ff96822c4c3a8156f409173a4e5b,
title = "Efficacy Study of Carrageenan as an Alternative Infused Material (Filler) in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Porous 3D Scaffold",
abstract = "Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL) method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6{\%} (w/v) were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00-9.20 and 0.047-1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30{\%} to 14.95{\%} (w/w) which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment). The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate (K) of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between 0.01±1.66 (mg/day) and 0.03±3.23 (mg/day). The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (p<0.05). The 3D infused scaffold of 4{\%} (w/v) carrageenan concentration (S2) produced a moderate degradation rate of 0.02±1.55 (mg/day) with a sustained structural integrity up to 28 days. The carrageenan infused scaffold of 4{\%} (w/v) was demonstrated to be the best 3D structure for a long-term cell culture (>2 weeks). In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be used in tissue engineering application and 3D cell culture model.",
author = "{Che Johari}, {Nor Syamimi} and Syazwan Aizad and Zubairi, {Saiful Irwan}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1155/2017/5029194",
language = "English",
volume = "2017",
journal = "International Journal of Polymer Science",
issn = "1687-9422",
publisher = "Hindawi Publishing Corporation",

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T1 - Efficacy Study of Carrageenan as an Alternative Infused Material (Filler) in Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) Porous 3D Scaffold

AU - Che Johari, Nor Syamimi

AU - Aizad, Syazwan

AU - Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL) method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% (w/v) were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00-9.20 and 0.047-1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30% to 14.95% (w/w) which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment). The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate (K) of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between 0.01±1.66 (mg/day) and 0.03±3.23 (mg/day). The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (p<0.05). The 3D infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) carrageenan concentration (S2) produced a moderate degradation rate of 0.02±1.55 (mg/day) with a sustained structural integrity up to 28 days. The carrageenan infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) was demonstrated to be the best 3D structure for a long-term cell culture (>2 weeks). In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be used in tissue engineering application and 3D cell culture model.

AB - Polymeric porous 3D scaffold plays an important role in culturing mammalian cells as ex vivo model. However, the scaffold used is ineffective due to its structural and cell acceptability weaknesses. Therefore, this research attempts to overcome the weaknesses by using carrageenan from red seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii as an alternative infused material (filler) of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) porous 3D scaffold. The 3D scaffold was conventionally fabricated using the solvent-casting particulate-leaching (SCPL) method. Carrageenan was later infused into 3D porous scaffolds under vacuum pressure and freeze-drying process. Five carrageenan concentrations were prepared and its physicochemical properties such as pH and viscosity were carried out on each concentration to determine the best solutions to produce a new composite 3D structure. The preliminary result shows that carrageenan concentrations of 2, 4, and 6% (w/v) were considered the best solutions for the infusion process due to its stable rheology properties. The pH and viscosity profiles of three selected carrageenan solutions were exhibited in the range of 9.00-9.20 and 0.047-1.144 Pa·s, respectively. Moreover, the incorporated carrageenan gel fraction was in the range of 4.30% to 14.95% (w/w) which was determined by gravimetric analysis and dye staining method (visual assessment). The well-infused carrageenan 3D scaffold was further characterized based on its internal morphology and degradability study. The vertical cross-sections of the scaffolds revealed homogeneous accumulation of dried gelatinous carrageenan which was covered throughout its pores wall. The degradation rate (K) of the carrageenan infused 3D scaffold was between 0.01±1.66 (mg/day) and 0.03±3.23 (mg/day). The higher the carrageenan concentration used, the faster the degradation rate occurring (p<0.05). The 3D infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) carrageenan concentration (S2) produced a moderate degradation rate of 0.02±1.55 (mg/day) with a sustained structural integrity up to 28 days. The carrageenan infused scaffold of 4% (w/v) was demonstrated to be the best 3D structure for a long-term cell culture (>2 weeks). In conclusion, the usage of carrageenan as a composite material exhibits its great potential to be used in tissue engineering application and 3D cell culture model.

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