Effects of Zamzam water alone or in combination with methadone on attenuation of spontaneous withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent rats

A behavioural study

Shariff Halim, Nasir Mohamad, Mohd. Ekhwan Toriman, Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar, Liyana Hazwani Mohd Adnan, Siti Norhajah Hashim, Nur Atikah Muhammad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Zamzam water is known to contain a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, antitumor, anxiolytic and antidepressant agent. The current study illustrating the novel approach of Zamzam water as a supplement for methadone in the treatment of morphine dependence was conducted. This study was carried out to explore the effects of Zamzam water on attenuating the spontaneous morphine withdrawal in rats. 50 male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely the normal group, untreated group, methadone treated group, Zamzam water treated group, and co-treatment both methadone and Zamzam water treated group. All the rats were exposed and made to be dependent to morphine via intraperitoneal injection method except for those belongs to the normal group. Subsequently, the morphine-dependent rats were treated with methadone, Zamzam water, or co-treatment of both methadone and Zamzam water for a total duration of thirty days. Consequently, spontaneous withdrawal symptoms such as body weight loss, rare standing, sniffing, penis licking and face grooming were observed on day one, seven, fourteen, twenty one and thirty of withdrawal spectrum. Next, the obtained data were analysed using SPSS v.11 software, and one way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post statistical tests. The data obtained from this animal behaviour observation indicates that the co-treatment methadone and Zamzam water significantly attenuates the spontaneous withdrawal symptoms (body weight loss, rare standing and sniffing) of morphine-dependent rat compared to other groups (P <0.05). This is owing to the higher mineral content in Zamzam water especially sodium that might play a vital role in alleviating morphine withdrawal symptoms. We have concluded that co-treatment of methadone and Zamzam water significantly attenuates the spontaneous morphine withdrawal symptoms; body weight loss, rare standing and sniffing among rats.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4492-4495
Number of pages4
JournalAdvanced Science Letters
Volume23
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017

Fingerprint

Morphine
Substance Withdrawal Syndrome
Methadone
withdrawal
Attenuation
Rats
Water
water
Dependent
body weight
Group
drug use
Weight Loss
Body Weight
Therapeutics
behavior observation
effect
Morphine Dependence
Antioxidants
Grooming

Keywords

  • Animal withdrawal symptoms
  • Methadone
  • Morphine
  • Zamzam water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Computer Science(all)
  • Education
  • Mathematics(all)
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Energy(all)

Cite this

Effects of Zamzam water alone or in combination with methadone on attenuation of spontaneous withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent rats : A behavioural study. / Halim, Shariff; Mohamad, Nasir; Toriman, Mohd. Ekhwan; Bakar, Nor Hidayah Abu; Adnan, Liyana Hazwani Mohd; Hashim, Siti Norhajah; Muhammad, Nur Atikah.

In: Advanced Science Letters, Vol. 23, No. 5, 01.05.2017, p. 4492-4495.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Halim, Shariff ; Mohamad, Nasir ; Toriman, Mohd. Ekhwan ; Bakar, Nor Hidayah Abu ; Adnan, Liyana Hazwani Mohd ; Hashim, Siti Norhajah ; Muhammad, Nur Atikah. / Effects of Zamzam water alone or in combination with methadone on attenuation of spontaneous withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent rats : A behavioural study. In: Advanced Science Letters. 2017 ; Vol. 23, No. 5. pp. 4492-4495.
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