Effects of temperature on the chemical composition of tars produced from the gasification of coconut and palm kernel shells using downdraft fixed-bed reactor

Ahmad Zubair Yahaya, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Andanastuti Muchtar, Shaharin Anwar Sulaiman, Wan Ramli Wan Daud

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Tar is derived from the gasification of cellulose and hemicellulose-rich coconut shell (CS) and lignin rich-palm kernel shell (PKS) using a downdraft fixed-bed reactor at 700 °C–900 °C. The tar yields and higher heating values from both biomass decrease with the increase in temperature, but high tar yields and higher heating values are obtained from PKS. Fourier transform infrared showed a similar pattern between the wavenumbers of 1500 cm−1 and 4000 cm−1, thereby indicating that the main chemical groups in CS and PKS tars are similar. The ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy shows that the aromatic content of tars increases with the increase in temperature, and CS tars show higher fluorescence intensity than PKS tars at >800 °C. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance shows that the tars from CS and PKS exhibit highly aromatic and phenolic protons, respectively. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry results reveal that the total relative content of compounds in PKS tars is slightly higher than that in CS tars, and phenol group is the most abundant compound at all temperatures. Overall, the formation of aromatics and light PAHs are higher with CS tars, but PKS tars are more stable for the formation of heterocyclic and heavy PAHs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116910
JournalFuel
Volume265
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020

Fingerprint

Tars
Tar
Gasification
Chemical analysis
Temperature
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Heating
Lignin
Phenol
Cellulose
Spectrometry
Phenols
Protons
Fourier transforms
Biomass

Keywords

  • Coconut shell
  • Downdraft fixed-bed reactor
  • Gasification temperature
  • Palm kernel shell
  • Tar chemical composition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

Effects of temperature on the chemical composition of tars produced from the gasification of coconut and palm kernel shells using downdraft fixed-bed reactor. / Zubair Yahaya, Ahmad; Rao Somalu, Mahendra; Muchtar, Andanastuti; Anwar Sulaiman, Shaharin; Ramli Wan Daud, Wan.

In: Fuel, Vol. 265, 116910, 01.04.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Effects of temperature on the chemical composition of tars produced from the gasification of coconut and palm kernel shells using downdraft fixed-bed reactor

AU - Zubair Yahaya, Ahmad

AU - Rao Somalu, Mahendra

AU - Muchtar, Andanastuti

AU - Anwar Sulaiman, Shaharin

AU - Ramli Wan Daud, Wan

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