Effects of standardized quassinoid-rich Eurycoma longifolia extract in a rat model of osteoporosis due to testosterone deficiency

A densitometric, morphometric and biomechanical study

Putri Ayu Jayusman, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ekram Alias, Sulaiman Md Dom, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was performed via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg. The orchidectomized and degarelix-induced rats were administered with vehicle, intramuscularly injected with testosterone once a week, or orally supplemented with EL extract at doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg daily for 10 weeks. Bone mass, microarchitecture and strength were analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-CT and three-point bending test. RESULTS: Whole body bone mineral density and femoral bone mineral content significantly increased in testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Micro-CT analysis revealed that trabecular bone volume, number, separation and connectivity density were significantly improved by testosterone administration. However, the structural model index was only improved in degarelix group supplemented with 100 mg/kg EL extract (P < 0.05). The improvement of cortical thickness by EL extract was similar to that of testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Biomechanically, EL extract supplementation was able to improve stiffness, strain and modulus of elasticity in degarelix-induced groups, while stress parameter was significantly improved in orchidectomized groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Quassinoid-richELextract enables to protect against bone loss due to testosterone deficiency. The protective effect on cortical thickness and biomechanical parameters is comparable to testosterone group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-656
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of X-Ray Science and Technology
Volume26
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

Eurycoma
Quassins
osteoporosis
Osteoporosis
rats
Testosterone
Rats
Bone
bones
Bone and Bones
Bone Density
Minerals
Aphrodisiacs
bone mineral content
Bending tests
Elastic Modulus
Structural Models
Castration
Subcutaneous Injections
Thigh

Keywords

  • Bone loss
  • Bone mineral
  • Bone strength
  • Micro-CT
  • Tongkat Ali

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

@article{733eb8d7e5784b3380a2c5e129f7063d,
title = "Effects of standardized quassinoid-rich Eurycoma longifolia extract in a rat model of osteoporosis due to testosterone deficiency: A densitometric, morphometric and biomechanical study",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was performed via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg. The orchidectomized and degarelix-induced rats were administered with vehicle, intramuscularly injected with testosterone once a week, or orally supplemented with EL extract at doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg daily for 10 weeks. Bone mass, microarchitecture and strength were analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-CT and three-point bending test. RESULTS: Whole body bone mineral density and femoral bone mineral content significantly increased in testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Micro-CT analysis revealed that trabecular bone volume, number, separation and connectivity density were significantly improved by testosterone administration. However, the structural model index was only improved in degarelix group supplemented with 100 mg/kg EL extract (P < 0.05). The improvement of cortical thickness by EL extract was similar to that of testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Biomechanically, EL extract supplementation was able to improve stiffness, strain and modulus of elasticity in degarelix-induced groups, while stress parameter was significantly improved in orchidectomized groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Quassinoid-richELextract enables to protect against bone loss due to testosterone deficiency. The protective effect on cortical thickness and biomechanical parameters is comparable to testosterone group.",
keywords = "Bone loss, Bone mineral, Bone strength, Micro-CT, Tongkat Ali",
author = "Jayusman, {Putri Ayu} and {Naina Mohamed}, Isa and Ekram Alias and Dom, {Sulaiman Md} and Shuid, {Ahmad Nazrun}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
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T1 - Effects of standardized quassinoid-rich Eurycoma longifolia extract in a rat model of osteoporosis due to testosterone deficiency

T2 - A densitometric, morphometric and biomechanical study

AU - Jayusman, Putri Ayu

AU - Naina Mohamed, Isa

AU - Alias, Ekram

AU - Dom, Sulaiman Md

AU - Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was performed via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg. The orchidectomized and degarelix-induced rats were administered with vehicle, intramuscularly injected with testosterone once a week, or orally supplemented with EL extract at doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg daily for 10 weeks. Bone mass, microarchitecture and strength were analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-CT and three-point bending test. RESULTS: Whole body bone mineral density and femoral bone mineral content significantly increased in testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Micro-CT analysis revealed that trabecular bone volume, number, separation and connectivity density were significantly improved by testosterone administration. However, the structural model index was only improved in degarelix group supplemented with 100 mg/kg EL extract (P < 0.05). The improvement of cortical thickness by EL extract was similar to that of testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Biomechanically, EL extract supplementation was able to improve stiffness, strain and modulus of elasticity in degarelix-induced groups, while stress parameter was significantly improved in orchidectomized groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Quassinoid-richELextract enables to protect against bone loss due to testosterone deficiency. The protective effect on cortical thickness and biomechanical parameters is comparable to testosterone group.

AB - BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (EL) is a well-known aphrodisiac herb for men. Recently, the crude extract of EL was reported to possess anti-osteoporotic activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the bone protective effects of the standardized quassinoid-rich EL extract in testosterone-deficient rat model. METHODS: Ninety-six intact male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into baseline, sham, orchidectomized, and chemically castrated groups. Chemical castration was performed via subcutaneous injection of degarelix at 2 mg/kg. The orchidectomized and degarelix-induced rats were administered with vehicle, intramuscularly injected with testosterone once a week, or orally supplemented with EL extract at doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg daily for 10 weeks. Bone mass, microarchitecture and strength were analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), micro-CT and three-point bending test. RESULTS: Whole body bone mineral density and femoral bone mineral content significantly increased in testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Micro-CT analysis revealed that trabecular bone volume, number, separation and connectivity density were significantly improved by testosterone administration. However, the structural model index was only improved in degarelix group supplemented with 100 mg/kg EL extract (P < 0.05). The improvement of cortical thickness by EL extract was similar to that of testosterone groups (p < 0.05). Biomechanically, EL extract supplementation was able to improve stiffness, strain and modulus of elasticity in degarelix-induced groups, while stress parameter was significantly improved in orchidectomized groups (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Quassinoid-richELextract enables to protect against bone loss due to testosterone deficiency. The protective effect on cortical thickness and biomechanical parameters is comparable to testosterone group.

KW - Bone loss

KW - Bone mineral

KW - Bone strength

KW - Micro-CT

KW - Tongkat Ali

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