Effects of hydrolysis conditions on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from kenaf bast fibers

Hanieh Kargarzadeh, Ishak Ahmad, Ibrahim Abdullah, Alain Dufresne, Siti Yasmine Zainudin, Rasha M. Sheltami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

301 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were first isolated from kenaf bast fibers and then characterized. The raw fibers were subjected to alkali treatment and bleaching treatment and subsequent hydrolysis with sulfuric acid. The influence of the reaction time on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of CNC was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that lignin and hemicellulose were almost entirely removed during the alkali and bleaching treatments. The morphology and dimensions of the fibers and acid-released CNC were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed that the crystallinity first increases upon hydrolysis and then decreases after long durations of hydrolysis. The optimal extraction time was found to be around 40 min during hydrolysis at 45 °C with 65% sulfuric acid. The thermal stability was found to decrease as the hydrolysis time increased. The electrophoretic mobility of the CNC suspensions was measured using the zeta potential, and it ranged from -8.7 to -95.3 mV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)855-866
Number of pages12
JournalCellulose
Volume19
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012

Fingerprint

Kenaf fibers
Bast fibers
Cellulose
Nanocrystals
Hydrolysis
Thermodynamic stability
Alkalies
Bleaching
Sulfuric acid
Electrophoretic mobility
Fibers
Lignin
Zeta potential
Field emission
X ray diffraction analysis
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Suspensions
Transmission electron microscopy
Scanning electron microscopy
Acids

Keywords

  • Cellulose nanocrystals
  • Hydrolysis conditions
  • Kenaf fibers
  • Purification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

Effects of hydrolysis conditions on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from kenaf bast fibers. / Kargarzadeh, Hanieh; Ahmad, Ishak; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Dufresne, Alain; Zainudin, Siti Yasmine; Sheltami, Rasha M.

In: Cellulose, Vol. 19, No. 3, 06.2012, p. 855-866.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kargarzadeh, Hanieh ; Ahmad, Ishak ; Abdullah, Ibrahim ; Dufresne, Alain ; Zainudin, Siti Yasmine ; Sheltami, Rasha M. / Effects of hydrolysis conditions on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from kenaf bast fibers. In: Cellulose. 2012 ; Vol. 19, No. 3. pp. 855-866.
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AU - Zainudin, Siti Yasmine

AU - Sheltami, Rasha M.

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