Effects of electron-beam and sulfur crosslinking of epoxidized natural rubber on the friction performance of semimetallic friction materials

A. Almaslow, C. T. Ratnam, Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali, R. J. Talib, Che Husna Azhari

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10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Semimetallic friction composites (SMFCs) consisting of epoxidized natural rubber (50 mol% epoxidation, ENR 50), alumina nanoparticles, steel wool, graphite, and benzoxazine were prepared via melt mixing using a Haake internal mixer at 90 C and 60 rpm rotor speed. The composites were vulcanized using sulfur and electron-beam (EB) crosslinking systems. The SMFC samples were then subjected to friction, hardness, porosity, and density tests to determine their friction and wear properties. The morphological changes in the samples were also observed under a scanning electron microscope. The friction and wear properties of SMFCs crosslinked via the EB irradiation and sulfur vulcanization systems were compared. The friction coefficients in normal and hot conditions, as well as the hardness and density of the irradiated SMFC, were higher than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The porosity of the irradiated SMFC at 50, 100, and 150 kGy was higher than that of the sulfur-vulcanized samples; however, the irradiated SMFC exhibited a descending trend at 200 kGy. On the other hand, the specific wear rates of the irradiated samples were lower than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The sample crosslinked via EB irradiation at 150 kGy exhibited the greater tribological property compared with the sulfur-vulcanized SMFC, as indicated by the higher friction coefficient (approximately 0.461) and lower wear rate achieved at 150 kGy irradiation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-382
Number of pages6
JournalComposites Part B: Engineering
Volume54
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Friction materials
Rubber
Sulfur
Crosslinking
Electron beams
Friction
Composite materials
Wear of materials
Irradiation
Porosity
Benzoxazines
Hardness
Vulcanization
Epoxidation
Graphite
Aluminum Oxide
Steel
Wool
Density (specific gravity)
Dosimetry

Keywords

  • B. Porosity
  • B. Surface properties
  • B. Wear
  • E. Cure
  • Friction coefficient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Effects of electron-beam and sulfur crosslinking of epoxidized natural rubber on the friction performance of semimetallic friction materials",
abstract = "Semimetallic friction composites (SMFCs) consisting of epoxidized natural rubber (50 mol{\%} epoxidation, ENR 50), alumina nanoparticles, steel wool, graphite, and benzoxazine were prepared via melt mixing using a Haake internal mixer at 90 C and 60 rpm rotor speed. The composites were vulcanized using sulfur and electron-beam (EB) crosslinking systems. The SMFC samples were then subjected to friction, hardness, porosity, and density tests to determine their friction and wear properties. The morphological changes in the samples were also observed under a scanning electron microscope. The friction and wear properties of SMFCs crosslinked via the EB irradiation and sulfur vulcanization systems were compared. The friction coefficients in normal and hot conditions, as well as the hardness and density of the irradiated SMFC, were higher than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The porosity of the irradiated SMFC at 50, 100, and 150 kGy was higher than that of the sulfur-vulcanized samples; however, the irradiated SMFC exhibited a descending trend at 200 kGy. On the other hand, the specific wear rates of the irradiated samples were lower than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The sample crosslinked via EB irradiation at 150 kGy exhibited the greater tribological property compared with the sulfur-vulcanized SMFC, as indicated by the higher friction coefficient (approximately 0.461) and lower wear rate achieved at 150 kGy irradiation.",
keywords = "B. Porosity, B. Surface properties, B. Wear, E. Cure, Friction coefficient",
author = "A. Almaslow and Ratnam, {C. T.} and Ghazali, {Mariyam Jameelah} and Talib, {R. J.} and Azhari, {Che Husna}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effects of electron-beam and sulfur crosslinking of epoxidized natural rubber on the friction performance of semimetallic friction materials

AU - Almaslow, A.

AU - Ratnam, C. T.

AU - Ghazali, Mariyam Jameelah

AU - Talib, R. J.

AU - Azhari, Che Husna

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Semimetallic friction composites (SMFCs) consisting of epoxidized natural rubber (50 mol% epoxidation, ENR 50), alumina nanoparticles, steel wool, graphite, and benzoxazine were prepared via melt mixing using a Haake internal mixer at 90 C and 60 rpm rotor speed. The composites were vulcanized using sulfur and electron-beam (EB) crosslinking systems. The SMFC samples were then subjected to friction, hardness, porosity, and density tests to determine their friction and wear properties. The morphological changes in the samples were also observed under a scanning electron microscope. The friction and wear properties of SMFCs crosslinked via the EB irradiation and sulfur vulcanization systems were compared. The friction coefficients in normal and hot conditions, as well as the hardness and density of the irradiated SMFC, were higher than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The porosity of the irradiated SMFC at 50, 100, and 150 kGy was higher than that of the sulfur-vulcanized samples; however, the irradiated SMFC exhibited a descending trend at 200 kGy. On the other hand, the specific wear rates of the irradiated samples were lower than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The sample crosslinked via EB irradiation at 150 kGy exhibited the greater tribological property compared with the sulfur-vulcanized SMFC, as indicated by the higher friction coefficient (approximately 0.461) and lower wear rate achieved at 150 kGy irradiation.

AB - Semimetallic friction composites (SMFCs) consisting of epoxidized natural rubber (50 mol% epoxidation, ENR 50), alumina nanoparticles, steel wool, graphite, and benzoxazine were prepared via melt mixing using a Haake internal mixer at 90 C and 60 rpm rotor speed. The composites were vulcanized using sulfur and electron-beam (EB) crosslinking systems. The SMFC samples were then subjected to friction, hardness, porosity, and density tests to determine their friction and wear properties. The morphological changes in the samples were also observed under a scanning electron microscope. The friction and wear properties of SMFCs crosslinked via the EB irradiation and sulfur vulcanization systems were compared. The friction coefficients in normal and hot conditions, as well as the hardness and density of the irradiated SMFC, were higher than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The porosity of the irradiated SMFC at 50, 100, and 150 kGy was higher than that of the sulfur-vulcanized samples; however, the irradiated SMFC exhibited a descending trend at 200 kGy. On the other hand, the specific wear rates of the irradiated samples were lower than those of the sulfur-vulcanized samples at all applied doses. The sample crosslinked via EB irradiation at 150 kGy exhibited the greater tribological property compared with the sulfur-vulcanized SMFC, as indicated by the higher friction coefficient (approximately 0.461) and lower wear rate achieved at 150 kGy irradiation.

KW - B. Porosity

KW - B. Surface properties

KW - B. Wear

KW - E. Cure

KW - Friction coefficient

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