Effect of pulp preconditioning on the content of polyphenols in cocoa beans (Theobroma Cacao) during fermentation

R. Nazaruddin, L. K. Seng, Osman Hassan, M. Said

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Polyphenol components were extracted from Malaysian mix-hybrid cocoa beans from different treatments of fermentation namely; post harvest pod storage, bean spreading and pressing. The polyphenol compounds were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. The (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, theobromine and caffeine of control treatment at 5 days pod storages were 11.87, 4.31, 21.08 and 3.85 mg/g, respectively. Pre-fermentation treatments were found to be significant in affecting the changes in acidity, degree of fermentation and the polyphenol content of cocoa bean. During fermentation, all pre-treated samples showed decreased levels of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin but the rate of decrease were found to be different. It was also found that the (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin content before and after fermentation was affected by the type of pre-fermentation treatment used. Percentage lost for (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin during fermentation at different degree of fermentation ranged from 6 to 17% and 0.95 to 1.62%, respectively. It was observed that pod storage treatments until 15 days have significant effect in the reduction of acidity, fermentation index (FI) and polyphenol contents compared to spreading and pressing methods. Recoveries (Rv) ranged from 90.90 to 93.92% with % coefficient of variances (CVs) of 6.51, 8.57, 2.42 and 6.37 for (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, theobromine and caffeine, respectively. This study indicates that 15 days pulp preconditioning is the optimum conditions for the degradation of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, theobromine and caffeine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-94
Number of pages8
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Volume24
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006

Fingerprint

cocoa beans
Theobroma cacao
Cacao
Catechin
Polyphenols
Fermentation
pulp
polyphenols
fermentation
epicatechin
catechin
theobromine
Theobromine
caffeine
pods
Caffeine
pressing
acidity
beans
high performance liquid chromatography

Keywords

  • Acidity
  • Cocoa beans
  • Fermentation
  • Pod storage
  • Polyphenols content

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Food Science

Cite this

Effect of pulp preconditioning on the content of polyphenols in cocoa beans (Theobroma Cacao) during fermentation. / Nazaruddin, R.; Seng, L. K.; Hassan, Osman; Said, M.

In: Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 24, No. 1, 07.2006, p. 87-94.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nazaruddin, R. ; Seng, L. K. ; Hassan, Osman ; Said, M. / Effect of pulp preconditioning on the content of polyphenols in cocoa beans (Theobroma Cacao) during fermentation. In: Industrial Crops and Products. 2006 ; Vol. 24, No. 1. pp. 87-94.
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AB - Polyphenol components were extracted from Malaysian mix-hybrid cocoa beans from different treatments of fermentation namely; post harvest pod storage, bean spreading and pressing. The polyphenol compounds were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. The (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, theobromine and caffeine of control treatment at 5 days pod storages were 11.87, 4.31, 21.08 and 3.85 mg/g, respectively. Pre-fermentation treatments were found to be significant in affecting the changes in acidity, degree of fermentation and the polyphenol content of cocoa bean. During fermentation, all pre-treated samples showed decreased levels of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin but the rate of decrease were found to be different. It was also found that the (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin content before and after fermentation was affected by the type of pre-fermentation treatment used. Percentage lost for (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin during fermentation at different degree of fermentation ranged from 6 to 17% and 0.95 to 1.62%, respectively. It was observed that pod storage treatments until 15 days have significant effect in the reduction of acidity, fermentation index (FI) and polyphenol contents compared to spreading and pressing methods. Recoveries (Rv) ranged from 90.90 to 93.92% with % coefficient of variances (CVs) of 6.51, 8.57, 2.42 and 6.37 for (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, theobromine and caffeine, respectively. This study indicates that 15 days pulp preconditioning is the optimum conditions for the degradation of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, theobromine and caffeine.

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