Effect of glycerol derived co-surfactant on the ternary phase behaviour of palm-based microemulsions

A. R. Ismail, W. Y. Wan Nurul Fatihah, Rusli Daik, A. H. Hazimah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion was prepared by mixing palm-based methyl esters (PME) with water at a 25:75 by weight ratio. The microemulsion was stabilised with C12-14 fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAE) with 7 and 2 moles of ethylene oxide (EO), and palm-methyl ester sulphonate (MES) as mixed surfactants, and glycerol-derived co-surfactant (GTBE) and conventional 1,2-hexanediol as the cosurfactants. The mixtures were agitated vigorously and then stored at ambient temperature and 45°C. Phase behaviour of the ternary-phase systems was periodically observed using the polarised light sheets. The ternary phase diagrams were then mapped. The physical characterisations of any stable microemulsions, such as the conductivity and viscosity solutions were also determined. The optimum concentrations of mixed surfactants (MES/ FAE 7/ FAE 2) and GTBE to form stable microemulsions were 20% (w/w) and 10% (w/w), respectively. A larger microemulsion region was also obtained for other system consisting of mixed surfactants (FAE 7/ FAE 2) and GTBE with the optimum concentrations of mixed surfactants and co-surfactant for producing full microemulsions were 15% (w/w) and 10% (w/w), respectively. Physical characterisations of the stable microemulsion solutions showed that the conductivity values depended on the content of aqueous solution, while the viscosity values on the physical structures of microemulsion formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-250
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Oil Palm Research
Volume26
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2014

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Fatty Alcohols
Microemulsions
Phase behavior
fatty alcohols
Glycerol
Surface-Active Agents
surfactants
glycerol
Surface active agents
Esters
sulfonates
esters
Viscosity
viscosity
ethylene oxide
Ethylene Oxide
polarized light
Water
aqueous solutions
ambient temperature

Keywords

  • Glycerol-derived co-surfactant (GTBE)
  • Household and industrial applications
  • Palm-based microemulsions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Food Science
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Biomaterials

Cite this

Effect of glycerol derived co-surfactant on the ternary phase behaviour of palm-based microemulsions. / Ismail, A. R.; Wan Nurul Fatihah, W. Y.; Daik, Rusli; Hazimah, A. H.

In: Journal of Oil Palm Research, Vol. 26, No. 3, 01.09.2014, p. 240-250.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ismail, A. R. ; Wan Nurul Fatihah, W. Y. ; Daik, Rusli ; Hazimah, A. H. / Effect of glycerol derived co-surfactant on the ternary phase behaviour of palm-based microemulsions. In: Journal of Oil Palm Research. 2014 ; Vol. 26, No. 3. pp. 240-250.
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