Effect of Filler Loading and NaOH Addition on Mechanical Properties of Moulded Kenaf/Polypropylene Composite

M. K F MdRadzi, Abu Bakar Sulong, Norhamidi Muhamad, M. A. MohdLatiff, N. F. Ismail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Natural fibre composites can have varying combinations of physical and mechanical properties, such as low density, low cost, high stiffness and strength. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) was used in this study as a natural fibre to reinforce polypropylene (PP) in the fabrication of polymer composite materials. The injection moulding method, with an injection temperature of 170°C, was used in this study. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the mechanical properties of kenaf/PP using the injection moulding method. PP was mixed with different compositions (5, 10, and 15 wt%) of kenaf particles with increasing concentrations of NaOH as a treatment agent to enhance the adhesion between kenaf and PP. Morphological and structural changes of the sample fracture were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the mechanical properties of the composite were increased when the percentage of kenaf composition was increased, and decreased when NaOH concentration was increased. The highest tensile value of the sample was 21.93 MPa at 15 wt% composition of kenaf particles, while the lowest value of 16.42 MPa was observed when NaOH was present. The improvement of flexural strength was highlighted, in 5 wt% composition of kenafreinforced PP with NaOH that was 32.07 MPa, but when the NaOH concentration was increased to over 10%, the flexural value decreased to 26.97 Mpa. Based on the results, the researchers concluded that NaOH treatment may increase the bond strength of kenaf composite; however, increasing the NaOH concentration can lead to a decrease in mechanical properties.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-590
Number of pages8
JournalPertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science
Volume38
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015

Fingerprint

filling materials
kenaf
composite materials
polypropylenes
mechanical properties
natural fibers
Hibiscus cannabinus
sodium hydroxide
scanning electron microscopes
adhesion
physical properties
polymers
researchers
injection
sampling
methodology

Keywords

  • Injection molding
  • Kenaf
  • Mechanical properties
  • Natural fibre polymer composite
  • Physical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

Effect of Filler Loading and NaOH Addition on Mechanical Properties of Moulded Kenaf/Polypropylene Composite. / MdRadzi, M. K F; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Muhamad, Norhamidi; MohdLatiff, M. A.; Ismail, N. F.

In: Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, Vol. 38, No. 4, 01.11.2015, p. 583-590.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{0b0b30a3772e4a058be8f87f2e302d22,
title = "Effect of Filler Loading and NaOH Addition on Mechanical Properties of Moulded Kenaf/Polypropylene Composite",
abstract = "Natural fibre composites can have varying combinations of physical and mechanical properties, such as low density, low cost, high stiffness and strength. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) was used in this study as a natural fibre to reinforce polypropylene (PP) in the fabrication of polymer composite materials. The injection moulding method, with an injection temperature of 170°C, was used in this study. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the mechanical properties of kenaf/PP using the injection moulding method. PP was mixed with different compositions (5, 10, and 15 wt{\%}) of kenaf particles with increasing concentrations of NaOH as a treatment agent to enhance the adhesion between kenaf and PP. Morphological and structural changes of the sample fracture were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the mechanical properties of the composite were increased when the percentage of kenaf composition was increased, and decreased when NaOH concentration was increased. The highest tensile value of the sample was 21.93 MPa at 15 wt{\%} composition of kenaf particles, while the lowest value of 16.42 MPa was observed when NaOH was present. The improvement of flexural strength was highlighted, in 5 wt{\%} composition of kenafreinforced PP with NaOH that was 32.07 MPa, but when the NaOH concentration was increased to over 10{\%}, the flexural value decreased to 26.97 Mpa. Based on the results, the researchers concluded that NaOH treatment may increase the bond strength of kenaf composite; however, increasing the NaOH concentration can lead to a decrease in mechanical properties.",
keywords = "Injection molding, Kenaf, Mechanical properties, Natural fibre polymer composite, Physical properties",
author = "MdRadzi, {M. K F} and Sulong, {Abu Bakar} and Norhamidi Muhamad and MohdLatiff, {M. A.} and Ismail, {N. F.}",
year = "2015",
month = "11",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "583--590",
journal = "Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science",
issn = "1511-3701",
publisher = "Universiti Putra Malaysia",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of Filler Loading and NaOH Addition on Mechanical Properties of Moulded Kenaf/Polypropylene Composite

AU - MdRadzi, M. K F

AU - Sulong, Abu Bakar

AU - Muhamad, Norhamidi

AU - MohdLatiff, M. A.

AU - Ismail, N. F.

PY - 2015/11/1

Y1 - 2015/11/1

N2 - Natural fibre composites can have varying combinations of physical and mechanical properties, such as low density, low cost, high stiffness and strength. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) was used in this study as a natural fibre to reinforce polypropylene (PP) in the fabrication of polymer composite materials. The injection moulding method, with an injection temperature of 170°C, was used in this study. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the mechanical properties of kenaf/PP using the injection moulding method. PP was mixed with different compositions (5, 10, and 15 wt%) of kenaf particles with increasing concentrations of NaOH as a treatment agent to enhance the adhesion between kenaf and PP. Morphological and structural changes of the sample fracture were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the mechanical properties of the composite were increased when the percentage of kenaf composition was increased, and decreased when NaOH concentration was increased. The highest tensile value of the sample was 21.93 MPa at 15 wt% composition of kenaf particles, while the lowest value of 16.42 MPa was observed when NaOH was present. The improvement of flexural strength was highlighted, in 5 wt% composition of kenafreinforced PP with NaOH that was 32.07 MPa, but when the NaOH concentration was increased to over 10%, the flexural value decreased to 26.97 Mpa. Based on the results, the researchers concluded that NaOH treatment may increase the bond strength of kenaf composite; however, increasing the NaOH concentration can lead to a decrease in mechanical properties.

AB - Natural fibre composites can have varying combinations of physical and mechanical properties, such as low density, low cost, high stiffness and strength. Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) was used in this study as a natural fibre to reinforce polypropylene (PP) in the fabrication of polymer composite materials. The injection moulding method, with an injection temperature of 170°C, was used in this study. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) on the mechanical properties of kenaf/PP using the injection moulding method. PP was mixed with different compositions (5, 10, and 15 wt%) of kenaf particles with increasing concentrations of NaOH as a treatment agent to enhance the adhesion between kenaf and PP. Morphological and structural changes of the sample fracture were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the mechanical properties of the composite were increased when the percentage of kenaf composition was increased, and decreased when NaOH concentration was increased. The highest tensile value of the sample was 21.93 MPa at 15 wt% composition of kenaf particles, while the lowest value of 16.42 MPa was observed when NaOH was present. The improvement of flexural strength was highlighted, in 5 wt% composition of kenafreinforced PP with NaOH that was 32.07 MPa, but when the NaOH concentration was increased to over 10%, the flexural value decreased to 26.97 Mpa. Based on the results, the researchers concluded that NaOH treatment may increase the bond strength of kenaf composite; however, increasing the NaOH concentration can lead to a decrease in mechanical properties.

KW - Injection molding

KW - Kenaf

KW - Mechanical properties

KW - Natural fibre polymer composite

KW - Physical properties

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84962224098&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84962224098&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 583

EP - 590

JO - Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science

JF - Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science

SN - 1511-3701

IS - 4

ER -