Double philadelphia chromosome-positive B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an elderly patient

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Abstract

A rare case of double Philadelphia chromosome-positive B Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia (B-ALL) is reported here. A 60-year-old lady presented with one month history of fever, submandibular lymphadenopathy, loss of appetite and weight loss. Physical examination revealed multiple palpable cervical lymph nodes. Blood film showed leucocytosis with 72% blasts. Bone marrow assessment confirmed a diagnosis of B-ALL with presence of double Philadelphia (Ph) chromosomes. As she was very ill, she was initially treated with an attenuated regimen of induction chemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CVP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy comprising methotrexate, cytarabine and hydrocortisone. Bone marrow examination post-induction chemotherapy showed >5% blasts. She was subsequently re-induced with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy, following which she went into complete remission. Consolidation chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate, methylprednisolone, cytarabine, intrathecal chemotherapy and imatinib was subsequently administered followed by maintenance chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, prednisolone and imatinib (IDEAMOP). She developed spontaneous bruises and relapsed four months into her maintenance chemotherapy with 90% blasts in the bone marrow which was treated with fludarabine, cytarabine and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (FLAG). Unfortunately she developed neutropenic sepsis which was complicated by invasive lung aspergillosis. Bone marrow examination post-FLAG showed 80% blasts. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, her lung infection worsened and she finally succumbed to her illness 13 months after the initial diagnosis. We highlight a rare case of elderly B-ALL with double Ph chromosomes which carries a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment for the disease and its complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-279
Number of pages5
JournalMalaysian Journal of Pathology
Volume37
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

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Chromosomes, Human, 4-5
Philadelphia Chromosome
Cytarabine
Vincristine
Prednisolone
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Maintenance Chemotherapy
Bone Marrow Examination
Induction Chemotherapy
Methotrexate
Drug Therapy
Cyclophosphamide
Bone Marrow
Consolidation Chemotherapy
Pulmonary Aspergillosis
Contusions
Leukocytosis
Methylprednisolone
Appetite
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor

Keywords

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
  • BCR/ABL
  • Double Philadelphia chromosomes
  • Imatinib

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Cell Biology
  • Histology

Cite this

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title = "Double philadelphia chromosome-positive B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an elderly patient",
abstract = "A rare case of double Philadelphia chromosome-positive B Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia (B-ALL) is reported here. A 60-year-old lady presented with one month history of fever, submandibular lymphadenopathy, loss of appetite and weight loss. Physical examination revealed multiple palpable cervical lymph nodes. Blood film showed leucocytosis with 72{\%} blasts. Bone marrow assessment confirmed a diagnosis of B-ALL with presence of double Philadelphia (Ph) chromosomes. As she was very ill, she was initially treated with an attenuated regimen of induction chemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CVP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy comprising methotrexate, cytarabine and hydrocortisone. Bone marrow examination post-induction chemotherapy showed >5{\%} blasts. She was subsequently re-induced with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy, following which she went into complete remission. Consolidation chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate, methylprednisolone, cytarabine, intrathecal chemotherapy and imatinib was subsequently administered followed by maintenance chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, prednisolone and imatinib (IDEAMOP). She developed spontaneous bruises and relapsed four months into her maintenance chemotherapy with 90{\%} blasts in the bone marrow which was treated with fludarabine, cytarabine and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (FLAG). Unfortunately she developed neutropenic sepsis which was complicated by invasive lung aspergillosis. Bone marrow examination post-FLAG showed 80{\%} blasts. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, her lung infection worsened and she finally succumbed to her illness 13 months after the initial diagnosis. We highlight a rare case of elderly B-ALL with double Ph chromosomes which carries a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment for the disease and its complications.",
keywords = "Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, BCR/ABL, Double Philadelphia chromosomes, Imatinib",
author = "Tang, {Yee Loong} and {Raja Sabudin}, {Raja Zahratul Azma} and {Chooi Fun}, Leong and Ko, {Clarence Ching Huat} and Chia, {Wai Kit} and Salwati Shuib and Wong, {Chieh Lee}",
year = "2015",
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volume = "37",
pages = "275--279",
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T1 - Double philadelphia chromosome-positive B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in an elderly patient

AU - Tang, Yee Loong

AU - Raja Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma

AU - Chooi Fun, Leong

AU - Ko, Clarence Ching Huat

AU - Chia, Wai Kit

AU - Shuib, Salwati

AU - Wong, Chieh Lee

PY - 2015/12/1

Y1 - 2015/12/1

N2 - A rare case of double Philadelphia chromosome-positive B Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia (B-ALL) is reported here. A 60-year-old lady presented with one month history of fever, submandibular lymphadenopathy, loss of appetite and weight loss. Physical examination revealed multiple palpable cervical lymph nodes. Blood film showed leucocytosis with 72% blasts. Bone marrow assessment confirmed a diagnosis of B-ALL with presence of double Philadelphia (Ph) chromosomes. As she was very ill, she was initially treated with an attenuated regimen of induction chemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CVP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy comprising methotrexate, cytarabine and hydrocortisone. Bone marrow examination post-induction chemotherapy showed >5% blasts. She was subsequently re-induced with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy, following which she went into complete remission. Consolidation chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate, methylprednisolone, cytarabine, intrathecal chemotherapy and imatinib was subsequently administered followed by maintenance chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, prednisolone and imatinib (IDEAMOP). She developed spontaneous bruises and relapsed four months into her maintenance chemotherapy with 90% blasts in the bone marrow which was treated with fludarabine, cytarabine and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (FLAG). Unfortunately she developed neutropenic sepsis which was complicated by invasive lung aspergillosis. Bone marrow examination post-FLAG showed 80% blasts. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, her lung infection worsened and she finally succumbed to her illness 13 months after the initial diagnosis. We highlight a rare case of elderly B-ALL with double Ph chromosomes which carries a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment for the disease and its complications.

AB - A rare case of double Philadelphia chromosome-positive B Acute lymphoblastic Leukaemia (B-ALL) is reported here. A 60-year-old lady presented with one month history of fever, submandibular lymphadenopathy, loss of appetite and weight loss. Physical examination revealed multiple palpable cervical lymph nodes. Blood film showed leucocytosis with 72% blasts. Bone marrow assessment confirmed a diagnosis of B-ALL with presence of double Philadelphia (Ph) chromosomes. As she was very ill, she was initially treated with an attenuated regimen of induction chemotherapy consisting of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CVP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy comprising methotrexate, cytarabine and hydrocortisone. Bone marrow examination post-induction chemotherapy showed >5% blasts. She was subsequently re-induced with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP) along with intrathecal chemotherapy, following which she went into complete remission. Consolidation chemotherapy consisting of methotrexate, methylprednisolone, cytarabine, intrathecal chemotherapy and imatinib was subsequently administered followed by maintenance chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, prednisolone and imatinib (IDEAMOP). She developed spontaneous bruises and relapsed four months into her maintenance chemotherapy with 90% blasts in the bone marrow which was treated with fludarabine, cytarabine and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (FLAG). Unfortunately she developed neutropenic sepsis which was complicated by invasive lung aspergillosis. Bone marrow examination post-FLAG showed 80% blasts. Despite aggressive antifungal therapy, her lung infection worsened and she finally succumbed to her illness 13 months after the initial diagnosis. We highlight a rare case of elderly B-ALL with double Ph chromosomes which carries a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatment for the disease and its complications.

KW - Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

KW - BCR/ABL

KW - Double Philadelphia chromosomes

KW - Imatinib

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