Domestic regulations in Malaysia’s higher education sector

Siew Yean Tham

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Introduction the growth of private higher education institutions (PHEIs) in Malaysia is politically and economically motivated. Excess demand and the use of ethnic quotas in a limited number of public universities with the implementation of the New Economic Policy in 1970 had raised the potential for inter-ethnic conflicts in multi-ethnic Malaysia. The government therefore utilized private provision to supplement public supply, thereby increasing access and reducing the possibility of inter-ethnic conflicts due to limited access. Over time, the perennial deficit in services trade since independence in 1957 contributed to the idea of using private higher education to reduce student outflows and its negative impact on services trade and, instead, to increase export revenues through inflows of international students. This led to the aspiration to be a regional hub for higher education based on Malaysia's comparative advantage in terms of costs and language via the use of English in transnational programmes offered in PHEIs, with degrees awarded by parent institutions in developed countries such as Australia and the United Kingdom. PHEIs grew rapidly with the formal opening up of the education sector in 1996 so that by 2012, there were twenty-nine private universities, twenty-one university colleges, five foreign university branch campuses, and 415 colleges. Intense competition, due to the large number of private providers and a small domestic market, with a population of 28 million, has forced these institutions to look outwards for international students. These institutions are allowed to recruit up to 80 per cent of their enrolment from outside the country. By 2009, Malaysia had captured 2 per cent of the global market for international students and was the eleventh preferred study destination for higher education. In 2010, 72 per cent of international students studying in Malaysia were enrolled in PHEIs, as public universities had capped their enrolment of international students at 5 per cent due to the continued excess demand from local students, as fees in public universities are highly subsidized.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationWTO Domestic Regulation and Services Trade: Putting Principles into Practice
PublisherCambridge University Press
Pages239-253
Number of pages15
ISBN (Print)9781107476448, 9781107062351
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Malaysia
regulation
education
university
student
ethnic conflict
private provision
private university
domestic market
demand
fee
Economic Policy
supplement
revenue
deficit
parents
supply
market
costs
language

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences(all)

Cite this

Tham, S. Y. (2012). Domestic regulations in Malaysia’s higher education sector. In WTO Domestic Regulation and Services Trade: Putting Principles into Practice (pp. 239-253). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107476448.019

Domestic regulations in Malaysia’s higher education sector. / Tham, Siew Yean.

WTO Domestic Regulation and Services Trade: Putting Principles into Practice. Cambridge University Press, 2012. p. 239-253.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Tham, SY 2012, Domestic regulations in Malaysia’s higher education sector. in WTO Domestic Regulation and Services Trade: Putting Principles into Practice. Cambridge University Press, pp. 239-253. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107476448.019
Tham SY. Domestic regulations in Malaysia’s higher education sector. In WTO Domestic Regulation and Services Trade: Putting Principles into Practice. Cambridge University Press. 2012. p. 239-253 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107476448.019
Tham, Siew Yean. / Domestic regulations in Malaysia’s higher education sector. WTO Domestic Regulation and Services Trade: Putting Principles into Practice. Cambridge University Press, 2012. pp. 239-253
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