Dieting status influences associations between dietary patterns and body composition in adolescents: A cross-sectional study

Anna S. Howe, Katherine E. Black, Jyh Eiin Wong, Winsome R. Parnell, Paula Ml Skidmore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Associations between food choice and body composition in previous studies of adolescents have been inconsistent. This may be due to the body composition measures used, or these associations may be affected by the dieting status of adolescents. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and body composition in adolescents, and determine if these associations are moderated by dieting status. Methods. Information on food consumption and current dieting status was collected, using a web-based survey, in 681 adolescents (mean age 15.8 (SD 0.9) years) from schools in Otago, New Zealand. Non-dieters were defined as those reporting not being on a diet as they were "happy with their weight". Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to determine dietary patterns. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), fat mass index (FMI), and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were examined as outcomes. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between dietary patterns and body composition. Results: PCA produced three dietary patterns: 'Treat Foods', 'Fruits and Vegetables', and 'Basic Foods'. A standard deviation increase in 'Basic Foods' was associated with a 3.58% decrease in FMI (95%CI -6.14, -0.94) in the total sample. When separate sex analysis was undertaken significant negative associations were found in boys only, between the 'Basic Food' score and WC, WHtR, FMI, and FFMI, while the 'Fruits and Vegetables' pattern was negatively associated with FMI. Associations between 'Treat Foods' and BMI, WC, and WHtR in non-dieters were positive, while these associations were negative for all other participants. Conclusions: Significant associations were found between dietary patterns and indices of both central and total adiposity, but not BMI. Therefore using only BMI measures may not be useful in this age group. Since our results were significant for boys and not girls, nutrition messages designed to prevent obesity may be particularly important for adolescent boys. As an interaction between dieting status and 'Treat Foods' existed, future studies should also explore the role of dieting when investigating food choice and body composition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number51
JournalNutrition Journal
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Body Composition
Cross-Sectional Studies
Food
Fats
Waist Circumference
Body Mass Index
Principal Component Analysis
Vegetables
Fruit
Body Weights and Measures
Adiposity
New Zealand
Age Groups
Obesity
Diet
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Body composition
  • Dietary patterns
  • Dieting status
  • New Zealand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Dieting status influences associations between dietary patterns and body composition in adolescents : A cross-sectional study. / Howe, Anna S.; Black, Katherine E.; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Parnell, Winsome R.; Skidmore, Paula Ml.

In: Nutrition Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, 51, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Howe, Anna S. ; Black, Katherine E. ; Wong, Jyh Eiin ; Parnell, Winsome R. ; Skidmore, Paula Ml. / Dieting status influences associations between dietary patterns and body composition in adolescents : A cross-sectional study. In: Nutrition Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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AU - Skidmore, Paula Ml

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