Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents

Mohd Shariff Zalilah, G. L. Khor, K. Mirnalini, Norimah A. Karim, M. Ang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

49 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. Results: The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. Conclusion: The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, strategies that address eating behaviours and physical activity are required. Various segments of the society must be involved in efforts to promote healthful dietary intakes and active lifestyle in children and adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)491-498
Number of pages8
JournalSingapore Medical Journal
Volume47
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006

Fingerprint

Energy Metabolism
Energy Intake
Pediatric Obesity
Exercise
Thinness
Weights and Measures
Body Mass Index
Body Weight
Diet
Basal Metabolism
Dietary Fats
Feeding Behavior
Life Style
Public Health
Obesity
Cross-Sectional Studies
Fats
Carbohydrates
Morbidity
Food

Keywords

  • Adolescents
  • Dietary intake
  • Energy expenditure
  • Energy intake
  • Obesity
  • Physical activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Zalilah, M. S., Khor, G. L., Mirnalini, K., A. Karim, N., & Ang, M. (2006). Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents. Singapore Medical Journal, 47(6), 491-498.

Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents. / Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Khor, G. L.; Mirnalini, K.; A. Karim, Norimah; Ang, M.

In: Singapore Medical Journal, Vol. 47, No. 6, 06.2006, p. 491-498.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zalilah, MS, Khor, GL, Mirnalini, K, A. Karim, N & Ang, M 2006, 'Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents', Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 491-498.
Zalilah, Mohd Shariff ; Khor, G. L. ; Mirnalini, K. ; A. Karim, Norimah ; Ang, M. / Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents. In: Singapore Medical Journal. 2006 ; Vol. 47, No. 6. pp. 491-498.
@article{d6d8ecce71e84ec2a3a044b0468bdc65,
title = "Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents",
abstract = "Introduction: Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. Results: The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. Conclusion: The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, strategies that address eating behaviours and physical activity are required. Various segments of the society must be involved in efforts to promote healthful dietary intakes and active lifestyle in children and adolescents.",
keywords = "Adolescents, Dietary intake, Energy expenditure, Energy intake, Obesity, Physical activity",
author = "Zalilah, {Mohd Shariff} and Khor, {G. L.} and K. Mirnalini and {A. Karim}, Norimah and M. Ang",
year = "2006",
month = "6",
language = "English",
volume = "47",
pages = "491--498",
journal = "Singapore Medical Journal",
issn = "0037-5675",
publisher = "Singapore Medical Association",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dietary intake, physical activity and energy expenditure of Malaysian adolescents

AU - Zalilah, Mohd Shariff

AU - Khor, G. L.

AU - Mirnalini, K.

AU - A. Karim, Norimah

AU - Ang, M.

PY - 2006/6

Y1 - 2006/6

N2 - Introduction: Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. Results: The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. Conclusion: The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, strategies that address eating behaviours and physical activity are required. Various segments of the society must be involved in efforts to promote healthful dietary intakes and active lifestyle in children and adolescents.

AB - Introduction: Paediatric obesity is a public health concern worldwide as it can track into adulthood and increase the risk of adult morbidity and mortality. While the aetiology of obesity is multi-factorial, the roles of diet and physical activity are controversial. Thus, the purpose of this study was to report on the differences in energy intake, diet composition, time spent doing physical activity and energy expenditure among underweight (UW), normal weight (NW) and at-risk of overweight (OW) Malaysian adolescents (317 females and 301 males) aged 11-15 years. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 6,555 adolescents measured for weights and heights for body mass index (BMI) categorisation. A total of 618 subjects were randomly selected from each BMI category according to gender. The subjects' dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using self-reported three-day food and activity records, respectively. Dietary intake components included total energy and macronutrient intakes. Energy expenditure was calculated as a sum of energy expended for basal metabolic rate and physical activity. Time spent (in minutes) in low, medium and high intensity activities was also calculated. Results: The OW adolescents had the highest crude energy intake and energy expenditure. However, after adjusting for body weight, the OW subjects had the lowest energy intake and energy expenditure (p-value is less than 0.001). The study groups did not differ significantly in time spent for low, medium and high intensity activities. Macronutrient intakes differed significantly only among the girls where the OW group had the highest intakes compared to UW and NW groups (p-value is less than 0.05). All study groups had greater than 30 percent and less than 55 percent of energy intake from fat and carbohydrate, respectively. Conclusion: The data suggested that a combination of low energy expenditure adjusted for body weight and high dietary fat intake may be associated with overweight and obesity among adolescents. To prevent overweight and obesity among children and adolescents, strategies that address eating behaviours and physical activity are required. Various segments of the society must be involved in efforts to promote healthful dietary intakes and active lifestyle in children and adolescents.

KW - Adolescents

KW - Dietary intake

KW - Energy expenditure

KW - Energy intake

KW - Obesity

KW - Physical activity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33745181892&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33745181892&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 16752017

AN - SCOPUS:33745181892

VL - 47

SP - 491

EP - 498

JO - Singapore Medical Journal

JF - Singapore Medical Journal

SN - 0037-5675

IS - 6

ER -