Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

Fadil Fatihah, Boon Koon Ng, Husin Hazwanie, Norimah A. Karim, Nik Shanita Safii, Ruzita Abd. Talib, Bee Koon Poh

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13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that <7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p <0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p <0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman's correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p <0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)687-694
Number of pages8
JournalSingapore Medical Journal
Volume56
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015

Fingerprint

Food
Validation Studies
Fats
Surveys and Questionnaires
Diet Records
Malaysia
Energy Intake
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Diet
Population

Keywords

  • Children
  • Dietary assessment method
  • FFQ
  • Reproducibility
  • Validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that <7{\%} of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p <0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p <0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman's correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p <0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.",
keywords = "Children, Dietary assessment method, FFQ, Reproducibility, Validation",
author = "Fadil Fatihah and Ng, {Boon Koon} and Husin Hazwanie and {A. Karim}, Norimah and Safii, {Nik Shanita} and {Abd. Talib}, Ruzita and Poh, {Bee Koon}",
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T1 - Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

AU - Fatihah, Fadil

AU - Ng, Boon Koon

AU - Hazwanie, Husin

AU - A. Karim, Norimah

AU - Safii, Nik Shanita

AU - Abd. Talib, Ruzita

AU - Poh, Bee Koon

PY - 2015/12/1

Y1 - 2015/12/1

N2 - INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that <7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p <0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p <0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman's correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p <0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

AB - INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that <7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p <0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p <0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman's correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p <0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

KW - Children

KW - Dietary assessment method

KW - FFQ

KW - Reproducibility

KW - Validation

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