Determining the Cost and Length of Stay at Intensive Care Units and the Factors Influencing Them in a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia

Yin Nwe Aung, Amrizal M. Nur, Aniza Ismail, Syed M. Aljunid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: Escalating healthcare costs calls for the efficiency of health services, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) where the bulk of resources are used. This study aims to identify the length of stay (LOS) and cost of care at ICUs, which are proxy indicators of efficiency and the factors determining them. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients requiring ICU admissions in a teaching hospital in Malaysia from 2013 to 2015 was conducted. The cost at the ICU was estimated using the step down approach. Factors that determined the cost and LOS at the ICU were also explored by using multivariate regression analysis. Results: Each day of stay cost $427 (USD) at the pediatric intensive care unit and $1324 at the general intensive care unit. The mean LOS at the ICU was 5.7 days (standard deviation [SD]: 8.4) with a median of 4 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-16.7 days). Average cost of care at the ICU per episode of care was $5473 (SD $6499), and the median was $3463. ICU patients spent 29.3% of the total stay and 47.2% of the cost at ICU units. Upon multivariate regression analysis, severity, case base-group, and type of ICU that the patient was admitted to were associated with the cost and LOS at ICU. Conclusions: Compared with critical care practices in hospitals from more developed nations, a Malaysian teaching hospital required a longer length of ICU stay. Hence, implementations of strategies that can reduce the length of stay and hospital costs without compromising healthcare quality are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-156
Number of pages8
JournalValue in Health Regional Issues
Volume21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2020

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Teaching Hospitals
Intensive Care Units
Length of Stay
Costs and Cost Analysis
Length of stay
Costs
Intensive care unit
Influencing factors
Multivariate Analysis
Regression Analysis
Episode of Care
Pediatric Intensive Care Units
Hospital Costs
Quality of Health Care
Proxy
Critical Care
Developed Countries
Health Care Costs
Health Services

Keywords

  • casemix
  • cost
  • determinants
  • ICU
  • length of stay
  • Malaysia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy

Cite this

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title = "Determining the Cost and Length of Stay at Intensive Care Units and the Factors Influencing Them in a Teaching Hospital in Malaysia",
abstract = "Objectives: Escalating healthcare costs calls for the efficiency of health services, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) where the bulk of resources are used. This study aims to identify the length of stay (LOS) and cost of care at ICUs, which are proxy indicators of efficiency and the factors determining them. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients requiring ICU admissions in a teaching hospital in Malaysia from 2013 to 2015 was conducted. The cost at the ICU was estimated using the step down approach. Factors that determined the cost and LOS at the ICU were also explored by using multivariate regression analysis. Results: Each day of stay cost $427 (USD) at the pediatric intensive care unit and $1324 at the general intensive care unit. The mean LOS at the ICU was 5.7 days (standard deviation [SD]: 8.4) with a median of 4 days (95{\%} confidence interval [CI] 1-16.7 days). Average cost of care at the ICU per episode of care was $5473 (SD $6499), and the median was $3463. ICU patients spent 29.3{\%} of the total stay and 47.2{\%} of the cost at ICU units. Upon multivariate regression analysis, severity, case base-group, and type of ICU that the patient was admitted to were associated with the cost and LOS at ICU. Conclusions: Compared with critical care practices in hospitals from more developed nations, a Malaysian teaching hospital required a longer length of ICU stay. Hence, implementations of strategies that can reduce the length of stay and hospital costs without compromising healthcare quality are required.",
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AB - Objectives: Escalating healthcare costs calls for the efficiency of health services, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) where the bulk of resources are used. This study aims to identify the length of stay (LOS) and cost of care at ICUs, which are proxy indicators of efficiency and the factors determining them. Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients requiring ICU admissions in a teaching hospital in Malaysia from 2013 to 2015 was conducted. The cost at the ICU was estimated using the step down approach. Factors that determined the cost and LOS at the ICU were also explored by using multivariate regression analysis. Results: Each day of stay cost $427 (USD) at the pediatric intensive care unit and $1324 at the general intensive care unit. The mean LOS at the ICU was 5.7 days (standard deviation [SD]: 8.4) with a median of 4 days (95% confidence interval [CI] 1-16.7 days). Average cost of care at the ICU per episode of care was $5473 (SD $6499), and the median was $3463. ICU patients spent 29.3% of the total stay and 47.2% of the cost at ICU units. Upon multivariate regression analysis, severity, case base-group, and type of ICU that the patient was admitted to were associated with the cost and LOS at ICU. Conclusions: Compared with critical care practices in hospitals from more developed nations, a Malaysian teaching hospital required a longer length of ICU stay. Hence, implementations of strategies that can reduce the length of stay and hospital costs without compromising healthcare quality are required.

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