Penentuan aktiviti radionuklid serta impak radiologi melalui pengambilan susu tepung, tepung gandum, teh dan kopi

Translated title of the contribution: Determination of radionuclide activity and radiological impact from the intake of milk, wheat flour, tea and coffee

Nik Nadia Hazwani Nek Kamal, Norafatin Khalid, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul Bahri, Amran Ab. Majid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Consumption of food containing radionuclides may contribute to internal dose. Studies on radionuclide content in several types of food should be done to determine effects to human. The objectives of this research are to i) determine the activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee samples, ii) to calculate the annual exposure dose in food products and iii) to determine the lifetime cancer risk amongst Malaysians. The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The study found that the mean activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee are 1.6 ± 0.8 , 3.3 ± 0.4 , 1.2 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.7 Bq kg -1 for 226Ra , 1.6 ± 0.2, 10.7 ± 3.3 , 2.1 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.2 Bq kg -1 for 238U , 1.8 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 2.2 , 1.9 ± 0.1 , 2.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 190.2 ± 49.6 , 395.4 ± 11.9 , 57.4 ± 28.5 , 429.4 ± 305.5 Bq kg -1 for 40K, respectively. The annual internal exposure dose for children through consumption of milk powder are 63.5 μSv for 226Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232Th, 2.8 μSv for 238U and 326.5 μSv for the 40K, respectively. Whereas, the annual internal exposure dose for adults through consumption of wheat flour, tea and coffee are 13.7 μSv for 226Ra , 18.0 μSv for 232Th , 5.1 μSv year -1 for 238U and 24.2 μSv year -1 for 40K, respectively. All radionuclide exposure doses are 425 μSv year -1 for children and 61.0 μSv year -1 for adults. This value provides a risk factor of 1.8 x 10 -3 cancer for children and 1.7 x 10 -4 for adults. It means that the probability of lifetime cancer risk increment of 0.18 % for children (18 people in 10 000) and 0.017 % for adults (1.7 people in 10 000). These values are lower than the ICRP cancer risk factors for the public of 2.5 x 10 -3 and the total risk from all sources of radiation dose based on the global annual dose of 2.4 mSv year -1 which is 6 x 10 -3. The study revealed that the intake of milk powder, flour, tea and coffee do not contribute a significant health hazard and is considered radiological safe to be taken by humans.

Original languageMalay
Pages (from-to)300-308
Number of pages9
JournalMalaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences
Volume19
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Coffee
Radioisotopes
Powders
Dosimetry
Health hazards
Gamma rays
Spectrometry
Milk
Tea

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Annual exposure dose
  • Cancer risk
  • Children
  • Radionuclides
  • Specific activity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry

Cite this

Penentuan aktiviti radionuklid serta impak radiologi melalui pengambilan susu tepung, tepung gandum, teh dan kopi. / Kamal, Nik Nadia Hazwani Nek; Khalid, Norafatin; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul; Ab. Majid, Amran.

In: Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2015, p. 300-308.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kamal, Nik Nadia Hazwani Nek ; Khalid, Norafatin ; Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul ; Ab. Majid, Amran. / Penentuan aktiviti radionuklid serta impak radiologi melalui pengambilan susu tepung, tepung gandum, teh dan kopi. In: Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. 2015 ; Vol. 19, No. 2. pp. 300-308.
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abstract = "Consumption of food containing radionuclides may contribute to internal dose. Studies on radionuclide content in several types of food should be done to determine effects to human. The objectives of this research are to i) determine the activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee samples, ii) to calculate the annual exposure dose in food products and iii) to determine the lifetime cancer risk amongst Malaysians. The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The study found that the mean activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee are 1.6 ± 0.8 , 3.3 ± 0.4 , 1.2 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.7 Bq kg -1 for 226Ra , 1.6 ± 0.2, 10.7 ± 3.3 , 2.1 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.2 Bq kg -1 for 238U , 1.8 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 2.2 , 1.9 ± 0.1 , 2.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 190.2 ± 49.6 , 395.4 ± 11.9 , 57.4 ± 28.5 , 429.4 ± 305.5 Bq kg -1 for 40K, respectively. The annual internal exposure dose for children through consumption of milk powder are 63.5 μSv for 226Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232Th, 2.8 μSv for 238U and 326.5 μSv for the 40K, respectively. Whereas, the annual internal exposure dose for adults through consumption of wheat flour, tea and coffee are 13.7 μSv for 226Ra , 18.0 μSv for 232Th , 5.1 μSv year -1 for 238U and 24.2 μSv year -1 for 40K, respectively. All radionuclide exposure doses are 425 μSv year -1 for children and 61.0 μSv year -1 for adults. This value provides a risk factor of 1.8 x 10 -3 cancer for children and 1.7 x 10 -4 for adults. It means that the probability of lifetime cancer risk increment of 0.18 {\%} for children (18 people in 10 000) and 0.017 {\%} for adults (1.7 people in 10 000). These values are lower than the ICRP cancer risk factors for the public of 2.5 x 10 -3 and the total risk from all sources of radiation dose based on the global annual dose of 2.4 mSv year -1 which is 6 x 10 -3. The study revealed that the intake of milk powder, flour, tea and coffee do not contribute a significant health hazard and is considered radiological safe to be taken by humans.",
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AU - Kamal, Nik Nadia Hazwani Nek

AU - Khalid, Norafatin

AU - Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul

AU - Ab. Majid, Amran

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N2 - Consumption of food containing radionuclides may contribute to internal dose. Studies on radionuclide content in several types of food should be done to determine effects to human. The objectives of this research are to i) determine the activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee samples, ii) to calculate the annual exposure dose in food products and iii) to determine the lifetime cancer risk amongst Malaysians. The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The study found that the mean activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee are 1.6 ± 0.8 , 3.3 ± 0.4 , 1.2 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.7 Bq kg -1 for 226Ra , 1.6 ± 0.2, 10.7 ± 3.3 , 2.1 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.2 Bq kg -1 for 238U , 1.8 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 2.2 , 1.9 ± 0.1 , 2.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 190.2 ± 49.6 , 395.4 ± 11.9 , 57.4 ± 28.5 , 429.4 ± 305.5 Bq kg -1 for 40K, respectively. The annual internal exposure dose for children through consumption of milk powder are 63.5 μSv for 226Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232Th, 2.8 μSv for 238U and 326.5 μSv for the 40K, respectively. Whereas, the annual internal exposure dose for adults through consumption of wheat flour, tea and coffee are 13.7 μSv for 226Ra , 18.0 μSv for 232Th , 5.1 μSv year -1 for 238U and 24.2 μSv year -1 for 40K, respectively. All radionuclide exposure doses are 425 μSv year -1 for children and 61.0 μSv year -1 for adults. This value provides a risk factor of 1.8 x 10 -3 cancer for children and 1.7 x 10 -4 for adults. It means that the probability of lifetime cancer risk increment of 0.18 % for children (18 people in 10 000) and 0.017 % for adults (1.7 people in 10 000). These values are lower than the ICRP cancer risk factors for the public of 2.5 x 10 -3 and the total risk from all sources of radiation dose based on the global annual dose of 2.4 mSv year -1 which is 6 x 10 -3. The study revealed that the intake of milk powder, flour, tea and coffee do not contribute a significant health hazard and is considered radiological safe to be taken by humans.

AB - Consumption of food containing radionuclides may contribute to internal dose. Studies on radionuclide content in several types of food should be done to determine effects to human. The objectives of this research are to i) determine the activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee samples, ii) to calculate the annual exposure dose in food products and iii) to determine the lifetime cancer risk amongst Malaysians. The concentrations of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The study found that the mean activity concentration in milk powder, tea, flour and coffee are 1.6 ± 0.8 , 3.3 ± 0.4 , 1.2 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.7 Bq kg -1 for 226Ra , 1.6 ± 0.2, 10.7 ± 3.3 , 2.1 ± 0.6 and 1.8 ± 0.2 Bq kg -1 for 238U , 1.8 ± 0.5, 9.5 ± 2.2 , 1.9 ± 0.1 , 2.2 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 190.2 ± 49.6 , 395.4 ± 11.9 , 57.4 ± 28.5 , 429.4 ± 305.5 Bq kg -1 for 40K, respectively. The annual internal exposure dose for children through consumption of milk powder are 63.5 μSv for 226Ra, 32.2 μSv for 232Th, 2.8 μSv for 238U and 326.5 μSv for the 40K, respectively. Whereas, the annual internal exposure dose for adults through consumption of wheat flour, tea and coffee are 13.7 μSv for 226Ra , 18.0 μSv for 232Th , 5.1 μSv year -1 for 238U and 24.2 μSv year -1 for 40K, respectively. All radionuclide exposure doses are 425 μSv year -1 for children and 61.0 μSv year -1 for adults. This value provides a risk factor of 1.8 x 10 -3 cancer for children and 1.7 x 10 -4 for adults. It means that the probability of lifetime cancer risk increment of 0.18 % for children (18 people in 10 000) and 0.017 % for adults (1.7 people in 10 000). These values are lower than the ICRP cancer risk factors for the public of 2.5 x 10 -3 and the total risk from all sources of radiation dose based on the global annual dose of 2.4 mSv year -1 which is 6 x 10 -3. The study revealed that the intake of milk powder, flour, tea and coffee do not contribute a significant health hazard and is considered radiological safe to be taken by humans.

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