Design of a fuel processor unit for PEM fuel cell via shortcut design method

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Abstract

The objective of this paper is to conceptually design a fuel processor system for a 5 kW proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for mobile and portable application. The first section describes the auto-thermal reformer (ATR) system while the second section demonstrates the significance of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction in the system. Shortcut design methods are used for the process units and the characterization curve for each unit is also presented. Kinetic parameters for steam reforming and WGS reactions are also shown. The 5 kW PEMFC requires about 0.08 m3/min (3.74 mol/min) of H2 fuel at the fuel cell stack. The primary fuel source to the ATR system is methanol 0.1 m3/min (4 mol/min), which is fed together with steam and oxygen with the ratio of S/C and02/Cat 1.3:1 and 1:4, respectively. The conceptual design indicates that if the mole ratio of O2/C is 0.20-0.25, then the hydrogen selectivity is around 2.5-2.6 for complete methanol. Steam is fed at excess condition in both units, ATR and WGS, to avoid reverse WGS reaction. The conceptual design also proved the significance of WGS reaction in the reduction of CO produced in the ATR and indicated the importance of pressure to reduce the bulk size of WGS reactor. Finally from the overall mass balance for fuel processor unit, the ATR product contains H2: 73%, CO: 2%, and C02: 25%. The CO level is then further reduced to less than 2000 ppm after the WGS reactor. In addition, this paper also studied the performance of preferential oxidation (PROX) in removing the CO and it was observed that the PROX could reduce the CO to less than 100 ppm and performed better than WGS reaction in terms of water management. However, the main problem with PROX is to decide a good catalyst that can give a good selectivity for CO oxidation rather than water formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7-17
Number of pages11
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Volume104
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2004

Fingerprint

Water gas shift
fuel cell
design method
Fuel cells
Carbon Monoxide
gas
oxidation
Oxidation
water
Steam
Conceptual design
electrolyte
Electrolytes
Methanol
methanol
Protons
membrane
Membranes
Catalyst selectivity
Steam reforming

Keywords

  • Auto-thermal reformer
  • PEMFC
  • Reaction kinetics
  • Water gas shift reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Environmental Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Design of a fuel processor unit for PEM fuel cell via shortcut design method",
abstract = "The objective of this paper is to conceptually design a fuel processor system for a 5 kW proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for mobile and portable application. The first section describes the auto-thermal reformer (ATR) system while the second section demonstrates the significance of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction in the system. Shortcut design methods are used for the process units and the characterization curve for each unit is also presented. Kinetic parameters for steam reforming and WGS reactions are also shown. The 5 kW PEMFC requires about 0.08 m3/min (3.74 mol/min) of H2 fuel at the fuel cell stack. The primary fuel source to the ATR system is methanol 0.1 m3/min (4 mol/min), which is fed together with steam and oxygen with the ratio of S/C and02/Cat 1.3:1 and 1:4, respectively. The conceptual design indicates that if the mole ratio of O2/C is 0.20-0.25, then the hydrogen selectivity is around 2.5-2.6 for complete methanol. Steam is fed at excess condition in both units, ATR and WGS, to avoid reverse WGS reaction. The conceptual design also proved the significance of WGS reaction in the reduction of CO produced in the ATR and indicated the importance of pressure to reduce the bulk size of WGS reactor. Finally from the overall mass balance for fuel processor unit, the ATR product contains H2: 73{\%}, CO: 2{\%}, and C02: 25{\%}. The CO level is then further reduced to less than 2000 ppm after the WGS reactor. In addition, this paper also studied the performance of preferential oxidation (PROX) in removing the CO and it was observed that the PROX could reduce the CO to less than 100 ppm and performed better than WGS reaction in terms of water management. However, the main problem with PROX is to decide a good catalyst that can give a good selectivity for CO oxidation rather than water formation.",
keywords = "Auto-thermal reformer, PEMFC, Reaction kinetics, Water gas shift reaction",
author = "Kamarudin, {Siti Kartom} and {Wan Daud}, {Wan Ramli} and Som, {A. Md} and Takriff, {Mohd Sobri} and Mohammad, {Abdul Wahab} and Loke, {Y. K.}",
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T1 - Design of a fuel processor unit for PEM fuel cell via shortcut design method

AU - Kamarudin, Siti Kartom

AU - Wan Daud, Wan Ramli

AU - Som, A. Md

AU - Takriff, Mohd Sobri

AU - Mohammad, Abdul Wahab

AU - Loke, Y. K.

PY - 2004/11/15

Y1 - 2004/11/15

N2 - The objective of this paper is to conceptually design a fuel processor system for a 5 kW proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for mobile and portable application. The first section describes the auto-thermal reformer (ATR) system while the second section demonstrates the significance of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction in the system. Shortcut design methods are used for the process units and the characterization curve for each unit is also presented. Kinetic parameters for steam reforming and WGS reactions are also shown. The 5 kW PEMFC requires about 0.08 m3/min (3.74 mol/min) of H2 fuel at the fuel cell stack. The primary fuel source to the ATR system is methanol 0.1 m3/min (4 mol/min), which is fed together with steam and oxygen with the ratio of S/C and02/Cat 1.3:1 and 1:4, respectively. The conceptual design indicates that if the mole ratio of O2/C is 0.20-0.25, then the hydrogen selectivity is around 2.5-2.6 for complete methanol. Steam is fed at excess condition in both units, ATR and WGS, to avoid reverse WGS reaction. The conceptual design also proved the significance of WGS reaction in the reduction of CO produced in the ATR and indicated the importance of pressure to reduce the bulk size of WGS reactor. Finally from the overall mass balance for fuel processor unit, the ATR product contains H2: 73%, CO: 2%, and C02: 25%. The CO level is then further reduced to less than 2000 ppm after the WGS reactor. In addition, this paper also studied the performance of preferential oxidation (PROX) in removing the CO and it was observed that the PROX could reduce the CO to less than 100 ppm and performed better than WGS reaction in terms of water management. However, the main problem with PROX is to decide a good catalyst that can give a good selectivity for CO oxidation rather than water formation.

AB - The objective of this paper is to conceptually design a fuel processor system for a 5 kW proton electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system for mobile and portable application. The first section describes the auto-thermal reformer (ATR) system while the second section demonstrates the significance of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction in the system. Shortcut design methods are used for the process units and the characterization curve for each unit is also presented. Kinetic parameters for steam reforming and WGS reactions are also shown. The 5 kW PEMFC requires about 0.08 m3/min (3.74 mol/min) of H2 fuel at the fuel cell stack. The primary fuel source to the ATR system is methanol 0.1 m3/min (4 mol/min), which is fed together with steam and oxygen with the ratio of S/C and02/Cat 1.3:1 and 1:4, respectively. The conceptual design indicates that if the mole ratio of O2/C is 0.20-0.25, then the hydrogen selectivity is around 2.5-2.6 for complete methanol. Steam is fed at excess condition in both units, ATR and WGS, to avoid reverse WGS reaction. The conceptual design also proved the significance of WGS reaction in the reduction of CO produced in the ATR and indicated the importance of pressure to reduce the bulk size of WGS reactor. Finally from the overall mass balance for fuel processor unit, the ATR product contains H2: 73%, CO: 2%, and C02: 25%. The CO level is then further reduced to less than 2000 ppm after the WGS reactor. In addition, this paper also studied the performance of preferential oxidation (PROX) in removing the CO and it was observed that the PROX could reduce the CO to less than 100 ppm and performed better than WGS reaction in terms of water management. However, the main problem with PROX is to decide a good catalyst that can give a good selectivity for CO oxidation rather than water formation.

KW - Auto-thermal reformer

KW - PEMFC

KW - Reaction kinetics

KW - Water gas shift reaction

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