Delayed traumatic intracranial haemorrhage and progressive traumatic brain injury in a major referral centre based in developing country

Charng Jeng Toh, Mohd Saffari Mohd Haspani, Johari Siregar Adnan, Nyi Nyi Naing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A repeat Computer Tomographic (CT) brain after 24-48 hours from the 1st scanning is usually practiced in most hospitals in South East Asia where intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) is routinely not done. This interval for repeat CT would be shortened if there was a deterioration in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) most of the time the prognosis of any intervention may be too late especially in hospitals with high patient to doctor ratio causing high mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine the important predictors for early detection of Delayed Traumatic Intracranial Haemorrhage (DTICH) and Progressive Traumatic Brain Injury (PTBI) before deterioration of GCS occurred as well as the most ideal timing of repeated CT brain for patients admitted in Malaysian hospitals. A total of 81 patients were included in this study over a period of six months. The CT scan brain were studied by comparing the first and second CT brain to diagnose the presence of DTICH/PTBI. The predictors tested were categorized into patient factors, CT brain findings and laboratory investigations.The mean age was 33.1 ± 15.7 years with a male preponderance of 6.36:1. Among them, (81.5%) of them were patients from road traffic accidents with Glasgow Coma Scale ranging from 4-15 (median of 12) upon admission. The mean time interval delay between trauma and first CT brain was 179.8 ± 121.3 minutes for the PTBI group. The DTICH group, (9.9%) of the patients were found to have new intracranial clots. Significant predictors detected were different referral hospitals (p=0.02), total GCS status (p=0.026), motor component of GCS (p=0.043), haemoglobin level (p<0.001), platelet count (p=0.011) and time interval between trauma and first CT brain (p=0.022). In the PTBI group, (42.0%) of the patients were found to have new changes (new clot occurrence, old clot expansion and edema) in the repeat CT brain. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that age (p=0.03), race (p=0.035), types of admission (p=0.024), GCS status (p=0.02), pupillary changes (p=0.014), no. of intracranial lesion (p=0.004), haemoglobin level (p=0.038), prothrombin time (p=0.016) as the best predictors of early detection of changes. Multiple Logistics regression analysis indicated that age, severity, GCS status (motor component) and GCS during admission were significantly associated with second CT scan with changes. This study showed that 9.9% of the total patients seen in the period of study had DTICH and 42% had PTBI. In the early period after traumatic head injury, the initial CT brain did not reveal the full extent of haemorrhagic injury and associated cerebral edema. Different referral hospitals of different trauma level, GCS status, motor component of the GCS, haemoglobin level, platelet count and time interval between trauma and the first CT brain were the significant predictors for DTICH. Whereas the key determinants of PTBI were age, race, types of admission, GCS status, pupillary changes, number of intracranial bleed, haemoglobin level, prothrombin time and of course time interval between trauma and first CT brain. Any patients who had traumatic head injury in hospitals with no protocol of repeat CT scan or intracranial pressure monitoring especially in developing countries are advised to have to repeat CT brain at the appropriate quickest time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)56-57
Number of pages2
JournalMalaysian Journal of Medical Sciences
Volume15
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage
Developing Countries
Glasgow Coma Scale
Referral and Consultation
Brain
Wounds and Injuries
Hemoglobins
Prothrombin Time
Intracranial Pressure
Traumatic Brain Injury
Platelet Count
Craniocerebral Trauma

Keywords

  • Computer tomographic scan
  • Delayed
  • Haemorrhage
  • Intracranial
  • Progressive brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Delayed traumatic intracranial haemorrhage and progressive traumatic brain injury in a major referral centre based in developing country. / Toh, Charng Jeng; Haspani, Mohd Saffari Mohd; Adnan, Johari Siregar; Naing, Nyi Nyi.

In: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2008, p. 56-57.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Delayed traumatic intracranial haemorrhage and progressive traumatic brain injury in a major referral centre based in developing country

AU - Toh, Charng Jeng

AU - Haspani, Mohd Saffari Mohd

AU - Adnan, Johari Siregar

AU - Naing, Nyi Nyi

PY - 2008

Y1 - 2008

N2 - A repeat Computer Tomographic (CT) brain after 24-48 hours from the 1st scanning is usually practiced in most hospitals in South East Asia where intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) is routinely not done. This interval for repeat CT would be shortened if there was a deterioration in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) most of the time the prognosis of any intervention may be too late especially in hospitals with high patient to doctor ratio causing high mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine the important predictors for early detection of Delayed Traumatic Intracranial Haemorrhage (DTICH) and Progressive Traumatic Brain Injury (PTBI) before deterioration of GCS occurred as well as the most ideal timing of repeated CT brain for patients admitted in Malaysian hospitals. A total of 81 patients were included in this study over a period of six months. The CT scan brain were studied by comparing the first and second CT brain to diagnose the presence of DTICH/PTBI. The predictors tested were categorized into patient factors, CT brain findings and laboratory investigations.The mean age was 33.1 ± 15.7 years with a male preponderance of 6.36:1. Among them, (81.5%) of them were patients from road traffic accidents with Glasgow Coma Scale ranging from 4-15 (median of 12) upon admission. The mean time interval delay between trauma and first CT brain was 179.8 ± 121.3 minutes for the PTBI group. The DTICH group, (9.9%) of the patients were found to have new intracranial clots. Significant predictors detected were different referral hospitals (p=0.02), total GCS status (p=0.026), motor component of GCS (p=0.043), haemoglobin level (p<0.001), platelet count (p=0.011) and time interval between trauma and first CT brain (p=0.022). In the PTBI group, (42.0%) of the patients were found to have new changes (new clot occurrence, old clot expansion and edema) in the repeat CT brain. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that age (p=0.03), race (p=0.035), types of admission (p=0.024), GCS status (p=0.02), pupillary changes (p=0.014), no. of intracranial lesion (p=0.004), haemoglobin level (p=0.038), prothrombin time (p=0.016) as the best predictors of early detection of changes. Multiple Logistics regression analysis indicated that age, severity, GCS status (motor component) and GCS during admission were significantly associated with second CT scan with changes. This study showed that 9.9% of the total patients seen in the period of study had DTICH and 42% had PTBI. In the early period after traumatic head injury, the initial CT brain did not reveal the full extent of haemorrhagic injury and associated cerebral edema. Different referral hospitals of different trauma level, GCS status, motor component of the GCS, haemoglobin level, platelet count and time interval between trauma and the first CT brain were the significant predictors for DTICH. Whereas the key determinants of PTBI were age, race, types of admission, GCS status, pupillary changes, number of intracranial bleed, haemoglobin level, prothrombin time and of course time interval between trauma and first CT brain. Any patients who had traumatic head injury in hospitals with no protocol of repeat CT scan or intracranial pressure monitoring especially in developing countries are advised to have to repeat CT brain at the appropriate quickest time.

AB - A repeat Computer Tomographic (CT) brain after 24-48 hours from the 1st scanning is usually practiced in most hospitals in South East Asia where intracranial pressure monitoring (ICP) is routinely not done. This interval for repeat CT would be shortened if there was a deterioration in Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) most of the time the prognosis of any intervention may be too late especially in hospitals with high patient to doctor ratio causing high mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine the important predictors for early detection of Delayed Traumatic Intracranial Haemorrhage (DTICH) and Progressive Traumatic Brain Injury (PTBI) before deterioration of GCS occurred as well as the most ideal timing of repeated CT brain for patients admitted in Malaysian hospitals. A total of 81 patients were included in this study over a period of six months. The CT scan brain were studied by comparing the first and second CT brain to diagnose the presence of DTICH/PTBI. The predictors tested were categorized into patient factors, CT brain findings and laboratory investigations.The mean age was 33.1 ± 15.7 years with a male preponderance of 6.36:1. Among them, (81.5%) of them were patients from road traffic accidents with Glasgow Coma Scale ranging from 4-15 (median of 12) upon admission. The mean time interval delay between trauma and first CT brain was 179.8 ± 121.3 minutes for the PTBI group. The DTICH group, (9.9%) of the patients were found to have new intracranial clots. Significant predictors detected were different referral hospitals (p=0.02), total GCS status (p=0.026), motor component of GCS (p=0.043), haemoglobin level (p<0.001), platelet count (p=0.011) and time interval between trauma and first CT brain (p=0.022). In the PTBI group, (42.0%) of the patients were found to have new changes (new clot occurrence, old clot expansion and edema) in the repeat CT brain. Univariate statistical analysis revealed that age (p=0.03), race (p=0.035), types of admission (p=0.024), GCS status (p=0.02), pupillary changes (p=0.014), no. of intracranial lesion (p=0.004), haemoglobin level (p=0.038), prothrombin time (p=0.016) as the best predictors of early detection of changes. Multiple Logistics regression analysis indicated that age, severity, GCS status (motor component) and GCS during admission were significantly associated with second CT scan with changes. This study showed that 9.9% of the total patients seen in the period of study had DTICH and 42% had PTBI. In the early period after traumatic head injury, the initial CT brain did not reveal the full extent of haemorrhagic injury and associated cerebral edema. Different referral hospitals of different trauma level, GCS status, motor component of the GCS, haemoglobin level, platelet count and time interval between trauma and the first CT brain were the significant predictors for DTICH. Whereas the key determinants of PTBI were age, race, types of admission, GCS status, pupillary changes, number of intracranial bleed, haemoglobin level, prothrombin time and of course time interval between trauma and first CT brain. Any patients who had traumatic head injury in hospitals with no protocol of repeat CT scan or intracranial pressure monitoring especially in developing countries are advised to have to repeat CT brain at the appropriate quickest time.

KW - Computer tomographic scan

KW - Delayed

KW - Haemorrhage

KW - Intracranial

KW - Progressive brain injury

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