Declining malaria parasite prevalence and trends of asymptomatic parasitaemia in a seasonal transmission setting in north-western Burkina Faso between 2000 and 2009-2012

Carolin Geiger, Hani Kartini Agustar, Guillaume Compaoré, Boubacar Coulibaly, Ali Sié, Heiko Becher, Michael Lanzer, Thomas Jänisch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Malaria transmission was reported to have declined in some East African countries. However, a comparable trend has not been confirmed for West Africa. This study aims to assess the dynamics of parasite prevalence and malaria species distribution over time in an area of highly seasonal transmission in Burkina Faso. The aim was also to compare frequency of asymptomatic parasitaemia between wet and dry season by parasite density status and age group. Methods. During the years 2009-2012, six cross-sectional studies were performed in the rural village Bourasso in the Nouna Health District in north-west Burkina Faso. In subsequent rainy and dry seasons blood samples were collected to assess the parasite prevalence, species, density and clinical parameters. In total, 1,767 children and adults were examined and compared to a baseline collected in 2000. Results: The microscopical parasite prevalence (mainly P. falciparum) measured over the rainy seasons decreased significantly from 78.9% (2000) to 58.4%, 55.9% and 49.3%, respectively (2009-2011; p <0.001). The frequency of Plasmodium malariae infections (mono- and co-infections) decreased parallel to the overall parasite prevalence from 13.4% in 2000 to 2.1%, 4.1% and 4.7% in 2009-2011 (p <0.001). Comparing parasite-positive subjects from the rainy season versus dry season, the risk of fever was significantly reduced in the dry season adjusting for parasite density (grouped) and age group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest a decline of malaria transmission over the rainy seasons between 2000 and 2009-2011 in the region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. The decreased transmission intensity was associated with lower prevalence of P. malariae infections (both mono-infections and co-infections). Asymptomatic parasitaemia was more frequent in the dry season even adjusting for parasite density and age group in a multivariate regression. Possible reasons for this observation include the existence of less pathogenic Plasmodium falciparum genotypes prevailing in the dry season, or the effect of a reduced incidence density during the dry season.

Original languageEnglish
Article number27
JournalMalaria Journal
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Burkina Faso
Parasitemia
Malaria
Parasites
Plasmodium malariae
Age Groups
Coinfection
Western Africa
Plasmodium falciparum
Fever
Cross-Sectional Studies
Genotype

Keywords

  • Asymptomatic parasitaemia
  • Burkina Faso
  • Clinical malaria
  • Malaria
  • Mixed infections
  • Parasite density
  • Parasite prevalence
  • Plasmodium falciparum
  • Seasonal transmission
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Parasitology

Cite this

Declining malaria parasite prevalence and trends of asymptomatic parasitaemia in a seasonal transmission setting in north-western Burkina Faso between 2000 and 2009-2012. / Geiger, Carolin; Agustar, Hani Kartini; Compaoré, Guillaume; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Sié, Ali; Becher, Heiko; Lanzer, Michael; Jänisch, Thomas.

In: Malaria Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, 27, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Geiger, Carolin ; Agustar, Hani Kartini ; Compaoré, Guillaume ; Coulibaly, Boubacar ; Sié, Ali ; Becher, Heiko ; Lanzer, Michael ; Jänisch, Thomas. / Declining malaria parasite prevalence and trends of asymptomatic parasitaemia in a seasonal transmission setting in north-western Burkina Faso between 2000 and 2009-2012. In: Malaria Journal. 2013 ; Vol. 12, No. 1.
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abstract = "Background: Malaria transmission was reported to have declined in some East African countries. However, a comparable trend has not been confirmed for West Africa. This study aims to assess the dynamics of parasite prevalence and malaria species distribution over time in an area of highly seasonal transmission in Burkina Faso. The aim was also to compare frequency of asymptomatic parasitaemia between wet and dry season by parasite density status and age group. Methods. During the years 2009-2012, six cross-sectional studies were performed in the rural village Bourasso in the Nouna Health District in north-west Burkina Faso. In subsequent rainy and dry seasons blood samples were collected to assess the parasite prevalence, species, density and clinical parameters. In total, 1,767 children and adults were examined and compared to a baseline collected in 2000. Results: The microscopical parasite prevalence (mainly P. falciparum) measured over the rainy seasons decreased significantly from 78.9{\%} (2000) to 58.4{\%}, 55.9{\%} and 49.3{\%}, respectively (2009-2011; p <0.001). The frequency of Plasmodium malariae infections (mono- and co-infections) decreased parallel to the overall parasite prevalence from 13.4{\%} in 2000 to 2.1{\%}, 4.1{\%} and 4.7{\%} in 2009-2011 (p <0.001). Comparing parasite-positive subjects from the rainy season versus dry season, the risk of fever was significantly reduced in the dry season adjusting for parasite density (grouped) and age group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest a decline of malaria transmission over the rainy seasons between 2000 and 2009-2011 in the region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. The decreased transmission intensity was associated with lower prevalence of P. malariae infections (both mono-infections and co-infections). Asymptomatic parasitaemia was more frequent in the dry season even adjusting for parasite density and age group in a multivariate regression. Possible reasons for this observation include the existence of less pathogenic Plasmodium falciparum genotypes prevailing in the dry season, or the effect of a reduced incidence density during the dry season.",
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AU - Geiger, Carolin

AU - Agustar, Hani Kartini

AU - Compaoré, Guillaume

AU - Coulibaly, Boubacar

AU - Sié, Ali

AU - Becher, Heiko

AU - Lanzer, Michael

AU - Jänisch, Thomas

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Background: Malaria transmission was reported to have declined in some East African countries. However, a comparable trend has not been confirmed for West Africa. This study aims to assess the dynamics of parasite prevalence and malaria species distribution over time in an area of highly seasonal transmission in Burkina Faso. The aim was also to compare frequency of asymptomatic parasitaemia between wet and dry season by parasite density status and age group. Methods. During the years 2009-2012, six cross-sectional studies were performed in the rural village Bourasso in the Nouna Health District in north-west Burkina Faso. In subsequent rainy and dry seasons blood samples were collected to assess the parasite prevalence, species, density and clinical parameters. In total, 1,767 children and adults were examined and compared to a baseline collected in 2000. Results: The microscopical parasite prevalence (mainly P. falciparum) measured over the rainy seasons decreased significantly from 78.9% (2000) to 58.4%, 55.9% and 49.3%, respectively (2009-2011; p <0.001). The frequency of Plasmodium malariae infections (mono- and co-infections) decreased parallel to the overall parasite prevalence from 13.4% in 2000 to 2.1%, 4.1% and 4.7% in 2009-2011 (p <0.001). Comparing parasite-positive subjects from the rainy season versus dry season, the risk of fever was significantly reduced in the dry season adjusting for parasite density (grouped) and age group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest a decline of malaria transmission over the rainy seasons between 2000 and 2009-2011 in the region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. The decreased transmission intensity was associated with lower prevalence of P. malariae infections (both mono-infections and co-infections). Asymptomatic parasitaemia was more frequent in the dry season even adjusting for parasite density and age group in a multivariate regression. Possible reasons for this observation include the existence of less pathogenic Plasmodium falciparum genotypes prevailing in the dry season, or the effect of a reduced incidence density during the dry season.

AB - Background: Malaria transmission was reported to have declined in some East African countries. However, a comparable trend has not been confirmed for West Africa. This study aims to assess the dynamics of parasite prevalence and malaria species distribution over time in an area of highly seasonal transmission in Burkina Faso. The aim was also to compare frequency of asymptomatic parasitaemia between wet and dry season by parasite density status and age group. Methods. During the years 2009-2012, six cross-sectional studies were performed in the rural village Bourasso in the Nouna Health District in north-west Burkina Faso. In subsequent rainy and dry seasons blood samples were collected to assess the parasite prevalence, species, density and clinical parameters. In total, 1,767 children and adults were examined and compared to a baseline collected in 2000. Results: The microscopical parasite prevalence (mainly P. falciparum) measured over the rainy seasons decreased significantly from 78.9% (2000) to 58.4%, 55.9% and 49.3%, respectively (2009-2011; p <0.001). The frequency of Plasmodium malariae infections (mono- and co-infections) decreased parallel to the overall parasite prevalence from 13.4% in 2000 to 2.1%, 4.1% and 4.7% in 2009-2011 (p <0.001). Comparing parasite-positive subjects from the rainy season versus dry season, the risk of fever was significantly reduced in the dry season adjusting for parasite density (grouped) and age group. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest a decline of malaria transmission over the rainy seasons between 2000 and 2009-2011 in the region of Nouna, Burkina Faso. The decreased transmission intensity was associated with lower prevalence of P. malariae infections (both mono-infections and co-infections). Asymptomatic parasitaemia was more frequent in the dry season even adjusting for parasite density and age group in a multivariate regression. Possible reasons for this observation include the existence of less pathogenic Plasmodium falciparum genotypes prevailing in the dry season, or the effect of a reduced incidence density during the dry season.

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KW - Clinical malaria

KW - Malaria

KW - Mixed infections

KW - Parasite density

KW - Parasite prevalence

KW - Plasmodium falciparum

KW - Seasonal transmission

KW - Transmission

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