Cytotoxicity effect of degraded and undegraded kappa and iota carrageenan in human intestine and liver cell lines

Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin, Wong Woan Yeen, Intan Zarina Zainol Abidin, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Zaidah Zainal Ariffin, Sahidan Senafi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Carrageenan is a linear sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed of the Rhodophyceae family. It has broad spectrum of applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical field. In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity of degraded and undegraded carrageenan in human intestine (Caco-2; cancer and FHs 74 Int; normal) and liver (HepG2; cancer and Fa2N-4; normal) cell lines. Methods: Food grade k-carrageenan (FGKC), dried sheet k-carrageenan (DKC), commercial grade k-carrageenan (CGKC), food grade i-carrageenan (FGIC) and commercial grade i-carrageenan (CGIC) were dissolved in hydrochloric acid and water to prepare degraded and undegraded carrageenan, respectively. Carrageenan at the concentration range of 62.5-2000.0 μg mL-1 was used in the study. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability while the mode of cell death was determined by May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and gene expression analysis. Results: Degraded FGKC, DKC and CGKC showed IC50 in 24, 48 and 72 hours treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines as tested by MTT assay. Degraded FGIC and CGIC only showed its toxicity in Fa2N-4 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis were demonstrated in degraded k-carrageenan treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cells after MGG staining. When Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were undergone AO/EtBr staining, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were clearly seen under the microscope. However, DNA ladder was only found in HepG2 cells after gel electrophoresis analysis. Degraded k-carrageenan also inactivated PCNA, Ki-67 and survivin gene in HepG2. On the other hand, undegraded FGKC, DKC, CGKC, FGIC and CGIC treated cells showed no cytotoxic effect after analyzed by the same analyses as in degraded carrageenan. Conclusion: Degraded k-carrageenan inhibited cell proliferation in Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines and the anti-proliferative effect was related to apoptosis together with inactivation of cell proliferating genes as determined by morphological observation and molecular analysis. However, no cytotoxic effect was found in undegraded carrageenan towards normal and cancer intestine and liver cell lines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number508
JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Dec 2014

Fingerprint

Carrageenan
Intestines
Cell Line
Liver
Food
Staining and Labeling
Acridine Orange
Ethidium
Hep G2 Cells
Liver Neoplasms
Apoptosis

Keywords

  • Acid hydrolysis
  • Apoptosis
  • Carrageenan
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Degraded
  • Iota
  • Kappa
  • Undegraded

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

Cytotoxicity effect of degraded and undegraded kappa and iota carrageenan in human intestine and liver cell lines. / Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Yeen, Wong Woan; Zainol Abidin, Intan Zarina; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Senafi, Sahidan.

In: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 1, 508, 17.12.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Carrageenan is a linear sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed of the Rhodophyceae family. It has broad spectrum of applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical field. In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity of degraded and undegraded carrageenan in human intestine (Caco-2; cancer and FHs 74 Int; normal) and liver (HepG2; cancer and Fa2N-4; normal) cell lines. Methods: Food grade k-carrageenan (FGKC), dried sheet k-carrageenan (DKC), commercial grade k-carrageenan (CGKC), food grade i-carrageenan (FGIC) and commercial grade i-carrageenan (CGIC) were dissolved in hydrochloric acid and water to prepare degraded and undegraded carrageenan, respectively. Carrageenan at the concentration range of 62.5-2000.0 μg mL-1 was used in the study. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability while the mode of cell death was determined by May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and gene expression analysis. Results: Degraded FGKC, DKC and CGKC showed IC50 in 24, 48 and 72 hours treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines as tested by MTT assay. Degraded FGIC and CGIC only showed its toxicity in Fa2N-4 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis were demonstrated in degraded k-carrageenan treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cells after MGG staining. When Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were undergone AO/EtBr staining, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were clearly seen under the microscope. However, DNA ladder was only found in HepG2 cells after gel electrophoresis analysis. Degraded k-carrageenan also inactivated PCNA, Ki-67 and survivin gene in HepG2. On the other hand, undegraded FGKC, DKC, CGKC, FGIC and CGIC treated cells showed no cytotoxic effect after analyzed by the same analyses as in degraded carrageenan. Conclusion: Degraded k-carrageenan inhibited cell proliferation in Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines and the anti-proliferative effect was related to apoptosis together with inactivation of cell proliferating genes as determined by morphological observation and molecular analysis. However, no cytotoxic effect was found in undegraded carrageenan towards normal and cancer intestine and liver cell lines.",
keywords = "Acid hydrolysis, Apoptosis, Carrageenan, Cytotoxicity, Degraded, Iota, Kappa, Undegraded",
author = "{Zainal Ariffin}, {Shahrul Hisham} and Yeen, {Wong Woan} and {Zainol Abidin}, {Intan Zarina} and {Megat Abdul Wahab}, Rohaya and {Zainal Ariffin}, Zaidah and Sahidan Senafi",
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T1 - Cytotoxicity effect of degraded and undegraded kappa and iota carrageenan in human intestine and liver cell lines

AU - Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham

AU - Yeen, Wong Woan

AU - Zainol Abidin, Intan Zarina

AU - Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

AU - Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah

AU - Senafi, Sahidan

PY - 2014/12/17

Y1 - 2014/12/17

N2 - Background: Carrageenan is a linear sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed of the Rhodophyceae family. It has broad spectrum of applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical field. In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity of degraded and undegraded carrageenan in human intestine (Caco-2; cancer and FHs 74 Int; normal) and liver (HepG2; cancer and Fa2N-4; normal) cell lines. Methods: Food grade k-carrageenan (FGKC), dried sheet k-carrageenan (DKC), commercial grade k-carrageenan (CGKC), food grade i-carrageenan (FGIC) and commercial grade i-carrageenan (CGIC) were dissolved in hydrochloric acid and water to prepare degraded and undegraded carrageenan, respectively. Carrageenan at the concentration range of 62.5-2000.0 μg mL-1 was used in the study. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability while the mode of cell death was determined by May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and gene expression analysis. Results: Degraded FGKC, DKC and CGKC showed IC50 in 24, 48 and 72 hours treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines as tested by MTT assay. Degraded FGIC and CGIC only showed its toxicity in Fa2N-4 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis were demonstrated in degraded k-carrageenan treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cells after MGG staining. When Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were undergone AO/EtBr staining, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were clearly seen under the microscope. However, DNA ladder was only found in HepG2 cells after gel electrophoresis analysis. Degraded k-carrageenan also inactivated PCNA, Ki-67 and survivin gene in HepG2. On the other hand, undegraded FGKC, DKC, CGKC, FGIC and CGIC treated cells showed no cytotoxic effect after analyzed by the same analyses as in degraded carrageenan. Conclusion: Degraded k-carrageenan inhibited cell proliferation in Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines and the anti-proliferative effect was related to apoptosis together with inactivation of cell proliferating genes as determined by morphological observation and molecular analysis. However, no cytotoxic effect was found in undegraded carrageenan towards normal and cancer intestine and liver cell lines.

AB - Background: Carrageenan is a linear sulphated polysaccharide extracted from red seaweed of the Rhodophyceae family. It has broad spectrum of applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical field. In this study, we determined the cytotoxicity of degraded and undegraded carrageenan in human intestine (Caco-2; cancer and FHs 74 Int; normal) and liver (HepG2; cancer and Fa2N-4; normal) cell lines. Methods: Food grade k-carrageenan (FGKC), dried sheet k-carrageenan (DKC), commercial grade k-carrageenan (CGKC), food grade i-carrageenan (FGIC) and commercial grade i-carrageenan (CGIC) were dissolved in hydrochloric acid and water to prepare degraded and undegraded carrageenan, respectively. Carrageenan at the concentration range of 62.5-2000.0 μg mL-1 was used in the study. MTT assay was used to determine the cell viability while the mode of cell death was determined by May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis and gene expression analysis. Results: Degraded FGKC, DKC and CGKC showed IC50 in 24, 48 and 72 hours treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines as tested by MTT assay. Degraded FGIC and CGIC only showed its toxicity in Fa2N-4 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis were demonstrated in degraded k-carrageenan treated Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cells after MGG staining. When Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were undergone AO/EtBr staining, chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were clearly seen under the microscope. However, DNA ladder was only found in HepG2 cells after gel electrophoresis analysis. Degraded k-carrageenan also inactivated PCNA, Ki-67 and survivin gene in HepG2. On the other hand, undegraded FGKC, DKC, CGKC, FGIC and CGIC treated cells showed no cytotoxic effect after analyzed by the same analyses as in degraded carrageenan. Conclusion: Degraded k-carrageenan inhibited cell proliferation in Caco-2, FHs 74 Int, HepG2 and Fa2N-4 cell lines and the anti-proliferative effect was related to apoptosis together with inactivation of cell proliferating genes as determined by morphological observation and molecular analysis. However, no cytotoxic effect was found in undegraded carrageenan towards normal and cancer intestine and liver cell lines.

KW - Acid hydrolysis

KW - Apoptosis

KW - Carrageenan

KW - Cytotoxicity

KW - Degraded

KW - Iota

KW - Kappa

KW - Undegraded

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