CYP2C9 polymorphism

Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia

Harris A. Ngow, W. M N Wan Khairina, L. K. Teh, W. L. Lee, R. Harun, R. Ismail, M. Z. Salleh

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    25 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Introduction: Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 among different populations in different geographical regions could be different. CYP2C9 has been reported to be the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many drugs, including warfarin and other drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Realising the importance of inter-individual differences in the genetic profile in determining the outcome of a drug therapy, this study was conducted to explore the types and frequencies of CYP2C9 alleles in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese, the two major ethnic groups in Malaysia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the types and frequencies of common CYP2C9 alleles (*1, *2, *3 and *4) among the healthy unrelated individuals and diseased patients prescribed with warfarin. Methods: A total of 565 Malay and Chinese subjects, including 191 patients prescribed warfarin, were recruited into the study. The healthy unrelated volunteers were also blood donors and they were confirmed to be physically fit before participating in the study. For the patients group, their medical records were reviewed for the relevant clinical data. 5 ml of blood was taken from each subject, and DNA was isolated and used for identification of the CYP2C9 allele *1, *2, *3 and *4 using nested-allele-specific-multiplexpolymerase chain reaction. Results: CYP2C9*1,*2 and *3 were detected among the healthy unrelated individuals but only CYP2C9 *1 and *3 were found in the diseased patients. Among the healthy Malays, 92.8 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1, 2.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*2 and 4.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3 genotypes. Among the Chinese, 92.3 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1 and 7.7 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3, but CYP2C9*2 and *4 were not found in the Chinese. Among the warfarin-treated group, only CYP2C9*1 and *3 were detected. Even though some alleles were not detected among the patients, suggesting the possible role of CYP2C9 in certain disorders, the sample size of the current study is too small to be able to arrive at any conclusive results. Conclusion: Based on the above-observed genotypes, the prevalence of CYP2C9*2 and *3 was low in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. Further studies are required to support the clinical effectiveness of pharmacogenomics testing.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)490-493
    Number of pages4
    JournalSingapore Medical Journal
    Volume50
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - May 2009

    Fingerprint

    Malaysia
    Warfarin
    Alleles
    Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9
    Genotype
    Genetic Polymorphisms
    Blood Donors
    Ethnic Groups
    Gene Frequency
    Individuality
    Pharmaceutical Preparations
    Sample Size

    Keywords

    • CYP2C9 frequency
    • Genetic polymorphism
    • Pharmacogenomics testing
    • Warfarin

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine(all)

    Cite this

    Ngow, H. A., Wan Khairina, W. M. N., Teh, L. K., Lee, W. L., Harun, R., Ismail, R., & Salleh, M. Z. (2009). CYP2C9 polymorphism: Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia. Singapore Medical Journal, 50(5), 490-493.

    CYP2C9 polymorphism : Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia. / Ngow, Harris A.; Wan Khairina, W. M N; Teh, L. K.; Lee, W. L.; Harun, R.; Ismail, R.; Salleh, M. Z.

    In: Singapore Medical Journal, Vol. 50, No. 5, 05.2009, p. 490-493.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Ngow, HA, Wan Khairina, WMN, Teh, LK, Lee, WL, Harun, R, Ismail, R & Salleh, MZ 2009, 'CYP2C9 polymorphism: Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia', Singapore Medical Journal, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 490-493.
    Ngow HA, Wan Khairina WMN, Teh LK, Lee WL, Harun R, Ismail R et al. CYP2C9 polymorphism: Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia. Singapore Medical Journal. 2009 May;50(5):490-493.
    Ngow, Harris A. ; Wan Khairina, W. M N ; Teh, L. K. ; Lee, W. L. ; Harun, R. ; Ismail, R. ; Salleh, M. Z. / CYP2C9 polymorphism : Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia. In: Singapore Medical Journal. 2009 ; Vol. 50, No. 5. pp. 490-493.
    @article{37fcbe1e59194ddd98f8bd187ca621d2,
    title = "CYP2C9 polymorphism: Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia",
    abstract = "Introduction: Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 among different populations in different geographical regions could be different. CYP2C9 has been reported to be the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many drugs, including warfarin and other drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Realising the importance of inter-individual differences in the genetic profile in determining the outcome of a drug therapy, this study was conducted to explore the types and frequencies of CYP2C9 alleles in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese, the two major ethnic groups in Malaysia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the types and frequencies of common CYP2C9 alleles (*1, *2, *3 and *4) among the healthy unrelated individuals and diseased patients prescribed with warfarin. Methods: A total of 565 Malay and Chinese subjects, including 191 patients prescribed warfarin, were recruited into the study. The healthy unrelated volunteers were also blood donors and they were confirmed to be physically fit before participating in the study. For the patients group, their medical records were reviewed for the relevant clinical data. 5 ml of blood was taken from each subject, and DNA was isolated and used for identification of the CYP2C9 allele *1, *2, *3 and *4 using nested-allele-specific-multiplexpolymerase chain reaction. Results: CYP2C9*1,*2 and *3 were detected among the healthy unrelated individuals but only CYP2C9 *1 and *3 were found in the diseased patients. Among the healthy Malays, 92.8 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1, 2.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*2 and 4.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3 genotypes. Among the Chinese, 92.3 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1 and 7.7 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3, but CYP2C9*2 and *4 were not found in the Chinese. Among the warfarin-treated group, only CYP2C9*1 and *3 were detected. Even though some alleles were not detected among the patients, suggesting the possible role of CYP2C9 in certain disorders, the sample size of the current study is too small to be able to arrive at any conclusive results. Conclusion: Based on the above-observed genotypes, the prevalence of CYP2C9*2 and *3 was low in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. Further studies are required to support the clinical effectiveness of pharmacogenomics testing.",
    keywords = "CYP2C9 frequency, Genetic polymorphism, Pharmacogenomics testing, Warfarin",
    author = "Ngow, {Harris A.} and {Wan Khairina}, {W. M N} and Teh, {L. K.} and Lee, {W. L.} and R. Harun and R. Ismail and Salleh, {M. Z.}",
    year = "2009",
    month = "5",
    language = "English",
    volume = "50",
    pages = "490--493",
    journal = "Singapore Medical Journal",
    issn = "0037-5675",
    publisher = "Singapore Medical Association",
    number = "5",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - CYP2C9 polymorphism

    T2 - Prevalence in healthy and warfarin-treated Malay and Chinese in Malaysia

    AU - Ngow, Harris A.

    AU - Wan Khairina, W. M N

    AU - Teh, L. K.

    AU - Lee, W. L.

    AU - Harun, R.

    AU - Ismail, R.

    AU - Salleh, M. Z.

    PY - 2009/5

    Y1 - 2009/5

    N2 - Introduction: Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 among different populations in different geographical regions could be different. CYP2C9 has been reported to be the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many drugs, including warfarin and other drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Realising the importance of inter-individual differences in the genetic profile in determining the outcome of a drug therapy, this study was conducted to explore the types and frequencies of CYP2C9 alleles in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese, the two major ethnic groups in Malaysia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the types and frequencies of common CYP2C9 alleles (*1, *2, *3 and *4) among the healthy unrelated individuals and diseased patients prescribed with warfarin. Methods: A total of 565 Malay and Chinese subjects, including 191 patients prescribed warfarin, were recruited into the study. The healthy unrelated volunteers were also blood donors and they were confirmed to be physically fit before participating in the study. For the patients group, their medical records were reviewed for the relevant clinical data. 5 ml of blood was taken from each subject, and DNA was isolated and used for identification of the CYP2C9 allele *1, *2, *3 and *4 using nested-allele-specific-multiplexpolymerase chain reaction. Results: CYP2C9*1,*2 and *3 were detected among the healthy unrelated individuals but only CYP2C9 *1 and *3 were found in the diseased patients. Among the healthy Malays, 92.8 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1, 2.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*2 and 4.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3 genotypes. Among the Chinese, 92.3 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1 and 7.7 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3, but CYP2C9*2 and *4 were not found in the Chinese. Among the warfarin-treated group, only CYP2C9*1 and *3 were detected. Even though some alleles were not detected among the patients, suggesting the possible role of CYP2C9 in certain disorders, the sample size of the current study is too small to be able to arrive at any conclusive results. Conclusion: Based on the above-observed genotypes, the prevalence of CYP2C9*2 and *3 was low in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. Further studies are required to support the clinical effectiveness of pharmacogenomics testing.

    AB - Introduction: Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 among different populations in different geographical regions could be different. CYP2C9 has been reported to be the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of many drugs, including warfarin and other drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Realising the importance of inter-individual differences in the genetic profile in determining the outcome of a drug therapy, this study was conducted to explore the types and frequencies of CYP2C9 alleles in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese, the two major ethnic groups in Malaysia. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the types and frequencies of common CYP2C9 alleles (*1, *2, *3 and *4) among the healthy unrelated individuals and diseased patients prescribed with warfarin. Methods: A total of 565 Malay and Chinese subjects, including 191 patients prescribed warfarin, were recruited into the study. The healthy unrelated volunteers were also blood donors and they were confirmed to be physically fit before participating in the study. For the patients group, their medical records were reviewed for the relevant clinical data. 5 ml of blood was taken from each subject, and DNA was isolated and used for identification of the CYP2C9 allele *1, *2, *3 and *4 using nested-allele-specific-multiplexpolymerase chain reaction. Results: CYP2C9*1,*2 and *3 were detected among the healthy unrelated individuals but only CYP2C9 *1 and *3 were found in the diseased patients. Among the healthy Malays, 92.8 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1, 2.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*2 and 4.6 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3 genotypes. Among the Chinese, 92.3 percent had CYP2C9*1/*1 and 7.7 percent had CYP2C9*1/*3, but CYP2C9*2 and *4 were not found in the Chinese. Among the warfarin-treated group, only CYP2C9*1 and *3 were detected. Even though some alleles were not detected among the patients, suggesting the possible role of CYP2C9 in certain disorders, the sample size of the current study is too small to be able to arrive at any conclusive results. Conclusion: Based on the above-observed genotypes, the prevalence of CYP2C9*2 and *3 was low in healthy and warfarin-treated Malays and Chinese in Malaysia. Further studies are required to support the clinical effectiveness of pharmacogenomics testing.

    KW - CYP2C9 frequency

    KW - Genetic polymorphism

    KW - Pharmacogenomics testing

    KW - Warfarin

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=67149098310&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=67149098310&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    M3 - Article

    VL - 50

    SP - 490

    EP - 493

    JO - Singapore Medical Journal

    JF - Singapore Medical Journal

    SN - 0037-5675

    IS - 5

    ER -