Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia

Hapizah M. Nawawi, Idris M. Nor, Ismail M. Noor, Norimah A. Karim, Fatimah Arshad, Rahmattullah Khan, Khalid Yusoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. Objective To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. Methods We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. Results The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of ≧5.2, ≧6.5 and ≧7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8% respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1%), hypertension (30.3%), smokers (24.4%), diabetes (6.4%), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9%), overweight or obesity (44.7%) and increased WHR (48.5%). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3% of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5% in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-23
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Risk
Volume9
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Fingerprint

Malaysia
Rural Population
Coronary Disease
Glucose
Waist-Hip Ratio
Fasting
Lipoprotein(a)
Economic Development
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Glucose Tolerance Test
Hypercholesterolemia
Serum
Fibrinogen
HDL Cholesterol
Developing Countries
Habits
Cause of Death
Body Mass Index
Obesity
Smoking

Keywords

  • Coronary risk factors
  • Global risk assessment
  • Malays
  • Rural

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia. / Nawawi, Hapizah M.; Nor, Idris M.; Noor, Ismail M.; A. Karim, Norimah; Arshad, Fatimah; Khan, Rahmattullah; Yusoff, Khalid.

In: Journal of Cardiovascular Risk, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2002, p. 17-23.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nawawi, Hapizah M. ; Nor, Idris M. ; Noor, Ismail M. ; A. Karim, Norimah ; Arshad, Fatimah ; Khan, Rahmattullah ; Yusoff, Khalid. / Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia. In: Journal of Cardiovascular Risk. 2002 ; Vol. 9, No. 1. pp. 17-23.
@article{e6ab3c79f4dd4a1a8ec0a76926528c76,
title = "Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia",
abstract = "Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. Objective To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. Methods We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. Results The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of ≧5.2, ≧6.5 and ≧7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8{\%} respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1{\%}), hypertension (30.3{\%}), smokers (24.4{\%}), diabetes (6.4{\%}), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9{\%}), overweight or obesity (44.7{\%}) and increased WHR (48.5{\%}). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3{\%} of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5{\%} in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.",
keywords = "Coronary risk factors, Global risk assessment, Malays, Rural",
author = "Nawawi, {Hapizah M.} and Nor, {Idris M.} and Noor, {Ismail M.} and {A. Karim}, Norimah and Fatimah Arshad and Rahmattullah Khan and Khalid Yusoff",
year = "2002",
doi = "10.1097/00043798-200202000-00003",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
pages = "17--23",
journal = "European Journal of Preventive Cardiology",
issn = "2047-4873",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Ltd",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Current status of coronary risk factors among rural Malays in Malaysia

AU - Nawawi, Hapizah M.

AU - Nor, Idris M.

AU - Noor, Ismail M.

AU - A. Karim, Norimah

AU - Arshad, Fatimah

AU - Khan, Rahmattullah

AU - Yusoff, Khalid

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. Objective To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. Methods We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. Results The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of ≧5.2, ≧6.5 and ≧7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8% respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1%), hypertension (30.3%), smokers (24.4%), diabetes (6.4%), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9%), overweight or obesity (44.7%) and increased WHR (48.5%). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3% of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5% in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.

AB - Background Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia, despite its status as a developing country. The rural population is thought to be at low risk. Objective To investigate the prevalence of risk factors and global risk profile among rural Malays in Malaysia. Methods We studied 609 rural Malay subjects (346 females, 263 males; age range 30-65 years). Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), smoking habits and family history of premature CHD were documented. Fasting blood samples were analysed for serum lipids, lipoprotein (a), plasma glucose and fibrinogen. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g anhydrous glucose. Results The prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia for total cholesterol concentrations of ≧5.2, ≧6.5 and ≧7.8 mmol/l were 67.3, 30.5 and 11.8% respectively. There was a high prevalence of low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.1%), hypertension (30.3%), smokers (24.4%), diabetes (6.4%), impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (13.9%), overweight or obesity (44.7%) and increased WHR (48.5%). Global risk assessment showed that 67.3% of the study population were at risk, with 15.9, 18.9 and 32.5% in the mild, moderate and high risk categories respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of risk factors was high in the rural population. Global risk assessment showed a high-risk profile with two-thirds being at risk, and one-third being categorized into the high-risk group. Although rural communities were considered at low risk of developing CHD, this is changing fast, possibly due to the rapid socio-economic development, in addition to underlying genetic predisposition.

KW - Coronary risk factors

KW - Global risk assessment

KW - Malays

KW - Rural

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036230032&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036230032&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/00043798-200202000-00003

DO - 10.1097/00043798-200202000-00003

M3 - Article

VL - 9

SP - 17

EP - 23

JO - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

JF - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

SN - 2047-4873

IS - 1

ER -