Correlation between the major components of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils

Ibrahim Jantan, Menaga Ilangkovan, Yuandani, Hazni Falina Mohamad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Recently, we have highlighted the immunomodulatory activity of the standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria. The present study was carried out to correlate between the prevalent constituents of the herbs and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. Methods: The compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, geraniin, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria obtained from Malaysia and Indonesia by using a validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The standardized extracts and the pure compounds were evaluated for their effects on chemotaxis, β2 integrin (CD18) expression, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. Chemotactic activity was assessed using the Boyden chamber technique, inhibition of CD18 expression and phagocytic ability were tested with the aid of flow cytometry, while effect on the respiratory burst was investigated using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. Results: All plant extracts strongly inhibited migration of the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus depicting the highest inhibitory activity. Amongst the compounds tested, geraniin demonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity on chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes with IC50 values of 1.09 and 1.69 μM, respectively, which were lower than that of ibuprofen. All plant extracts and pure compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of zymosan and PMA stimulated leukocytes. Geraniin and corilagin exhibited exceptionally strong inhibition on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity with IC50 values lower than aspirin. The plant extracts exhibited moderate inhibition of E. coli uptake by monocytes but weak effect on PMNs. Of all the compounds, phyllanthin at 50 μg/mL exhibited the highest engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for PMNs and monocytes, respectively. All plants and compounds tested possessed weak effect on CD18 expression on leukocytes except for hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin which exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The strong inhibition of the extracts on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils was due to the presence of their major constituents especially geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthin and hypophllanthin which were able to modulate the innate response of phagocytes at different steps.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429
Number of pages1
JournalBMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Nov 2014

Fingerprint

Phyllanthus
Human Activities
Plant Extracts
Neutrophils
Phagocytes
Monocytes
Respiratory Burst
Chemotaxis
Luminescence
Inhibitory Concentration 50
Leukocytes
Ellagic Acid
Luminol
Gallic Acid
Aptitude
Zymosan
Indonesia
Ibuprofen
Malaysia
Reverse-Phase Chromatography

Keywords

  • Corilagin
  • Geraniin
  • Hypophyllanthin
  • Immunomodulatory effects
  • Phagocytosis
  • Phyllanthin
  • Phyllanthus amarus
  • Phyllanthus urinaria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Complementary and alternative medicine

Cite this

@article{1ca075781a37495d941f686c0ec76b30,
title = "Correlation between the major components of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils",
abstract = "Background: Recently, we have highlighted the immunomodulatory activity of the standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria. The present study was carried out to correlate between the prevalent constituents of the herbs and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. Methods: The compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, geraniin, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria obtained from Malaysia and Indonesia by using a validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The standardized extracts and the pure compounds were evaluated for their effects on chemotaxis, β2 integrin (CD18) expression, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. Chemotactic activity was assessed using the Boyden chamber technique, inhibition of CD18 expression and phagocytic ability were tested with the aid of flow cytometry, while effect on the respiratory burst was investigated using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. Results: All plant extracts strongly inhibited migration of the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus depicting the highest inhibitory activity. Amongst the compounds tested, geraniin demonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity on chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes with IC50 values of 1.09 and 1.69 μM, respectively, which were lower than that of ibuprofen. All plant extracts and pure compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of zymosan and PMA stimulated leukocytes. Geraniin and corilagin exhibited exceptionally strong inhibition on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity with IC50 values lower than aspirin. The plant extracts exhibited moderate inhibition of E. coli uptake by monocytes but weak effect on PMNs. Of all the compounds, phyllanthin at 50 μg/mL exhibited the highest engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1{\%} for PMNs and monocytes, respectively. All plants and compounds tested possessed weak effect on CD18 expression on leukocytes except for hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin which exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The strong inhibition of the extracts on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils was due to the presence of their major constituents especially geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthin and hypophllanthin which were able to modulate the innate response of phagocytes at different steps.",
keywords = "Corilagin, Geraniin, Hypophyllanthin, Immunomodulatory effects, Phagocytosis, Phyllanthin, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria",
author = "Ibrahim Jantan and Menaga Ilangkovan and Yuandani and Mohamad, {Hazni Falina}",
year = "2014",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1186/1472-6882-14-429",
language = "English",
pages = "429",
journal = "BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine",
issn = "1472-6882",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Correlation between the major components of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus urinaria and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils

AU - Jantan, Ibrahim

AU - Ilangkovan, Menaga

AU - Yuandani,

AU - Mohamad, Hazni Falina

PY - 2014/11/1

Y1 - 2014/11/1

N2 - Background: Recently, we have highlighted the immunomodulatory activity of the standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria. The present study was carried out to correlate between the prevalent constituents of the herbs and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. Methods: The compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, geraniin, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria obtained from Malaysia and Indonesia by using a validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The standardized extracts and the pure compounds were evaluated for their effects on chemotaxis, β2 integrin (CD18) expression, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. Chemotactic activity was assessed using the Boyden chamber technique, inhibition of CD18 expression and phagocytic ability were tested with the aid of flow cytometry, while effect on the respiratory burst was investigated using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. Results: All plant extracts strongly inhibited migration of the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus depicting the highest inhibitory activity. Amongst the compounds tested, geraniin demonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity on chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes with IC50 values of 1.09 and 1.69 μM, respectively, which were lower than that of ibuprofen. All plant extracts and pure compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of zymosan and PMA stimulated leukocytes. Geraniin and corilagin exhibited exceptionally strong inhibition on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity with IC50 values lower than aspirin. The plant extracts exhibited moderate inhibition of E. coli uptake by monocytes but weak effect on PMNs. Of all the compounds, phyllanthin at 50 μg/mL exhibited the highest engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for PMNs and monocytes, respectively. All plants and compounds tested possessed weak effect on CD18 expression on leukocytes except for hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin which exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The strong inhibition of the extracts on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils was due to the presence of their major constituents especially geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthin and hypophllanthin which were able to modulate the innate response of phagocytes at different steps.

AB - Background: Recently, we have highlighted the immunomodulatory activity of the standardized extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria. The present study was carried out to correlate between the prevalent constituents of the herbs and their inhibitory effects on phagocytic activity of human neutrophils. Methods: The compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, geraniin, phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin were identified and quantitatively analyzed in the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and P. urinaria obtained from Malaysia and Indonesia by using a validated reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method. The standardized extracts and the pure compounds were evaluated for their effects on chemotaxis, β2 integrin (CD18) expression, phagocytosis and chemiluminescence of human phagocytes. Chemotactic activity was assessed using the Boyden chamber technique, inhibition of CD18 expression and phagocytic ability were tested with the aid of flow cytometry, while effect on the respiratory burst was investigated using a luminol-based chemiluminescence assay. Results: All plant extracts strongly inhibited migration of the phagocytes with the Malaysian P. amarus depicting the highest inhibitory activity. Amongst the compounds tested, geraniin demonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity on chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes with IC50 values of 1.09 and 1.69 μM, respectively, which were lower than that of ibuprofen. All plant extracts and pure compounds exhibited high inhibitory activity on the oxidative burst of zymosan and PMA stimulated leukocytes. Geraniin and corilagin exhibited exceptionally strong inhibition on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity with IC50 values lower than aspirin. The plant extracts exhibited moderate inhibition of E. coli uptake by monocytes but weak effect on PMNs. Of all the compounds, phyllanthin at 50 μg/mL exhibited the highest engulfment inhibitory activity with percentage of phagocytizing cells of 14.2 and 27.1% for PMNs and monocytes, respectively. All plants and compounds tested possessed weak effect on CD18 expression on leukocytes except for hypophyllanthin and phyllanthin which exhibited significant inhibitory effect. Conclusion: The strong inhibition of the extracts on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils was due to the presence of their major constituents especially geraniin, corilagin, phyllanthin and hypophllanthin which were able to modulate the innate response of phagocytes at different steps.

KW - Corilagin

KW - Geraniin

KW - Hypophyllanthin

KW - Immunomodulatory effects

KW - Phagocytosis

KW - Phyllanthin

KW - Phyllanthus amarus

KW - Phyllanthus urinaria

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U2 - 10.1186/1472-6882-14-429

DO - 10.1186/1472-6882-14-429

M3 - Article

SP - 429

JO - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

JF - BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

SN - 1472-6882

ER -