Content of heavy metals in soil collected from selected paddy cultivation areas in kedah and perlis, Malaysia

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Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the status of heavy metal contamination, their bioavailability in soils and the factors controlling their accumulation. Five sampling sites were selected randomly from Kedah (Jitra, Yan and Kerpan district) and Perlis (Arau district). A site in Langkawi, that practised organic paddy farming culture was used as the control. The heavy metals in the soils were extracted using the sequential extraction method, which consisted of four fractions including the easily leachable and ion exchange (ELFE), acid reducible (AR), oxidizable organic (OO) and resistant (RR) fractions. Generally, all of the paddy soils studied contained low Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr concentrations compared to levels found in the upland crop areas. This study indicated that soils derived from marine, alluvial and peat deposits were naturally low in heavy metals as compared to those from weathered bedrocks. The results showed that there was wide variation in the concentration of heavy metals in the studied areas and they occurred in the following decreasing order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd. Except for Mn, all the other heavy metals were concentrated mostly in the RR and OO fractions. On the other hand, the ELFE and AR Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr were undetected in some of the study areas. The results strongly suggest that heavy metals in these areas accumulated in the unavailable forms (RR and OO fractions), hence the low bioavailability (ELFE and AR fractions) of heavy metals in the soil samples. Elevated levels of Mn in Arau suggested heavy use of agrochemical materials in paddy planting activities in addition to the natural contribution of Mn from the weathered bedrock surrounding the area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2179-2188
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Sciences Research
Volume5
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2009

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heavy metal
soil
bioavailability
paddy farming
acid
bedrock
agrochemical
extraction method
peat
ion exchange
crop
sampling

Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Rice fields
  • Soil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

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title = "Content of heavy metals in soil collected from selected paddy cultivation areas in kedah and perlis, Malaysia",
abstract = "This study was conducted to determine the status of heavy metal contamination, their bioavailability in soils and the factors controlling their accumulation. Five sampling sites were selected randomly from Kedah (Jitra, Yan and Kerpan district) and Perlis (Arau district). A site in Langkawi, that practised organic paddy farming culture was used as the control. The heavy metals in the soils were extracted using the sequential extraction method, which consisted of four fractions including the easily leachable and ion exchange (ELFE), acid reducible (AR), oxidizable organic (OO) and resistant (RR) fractions. Generally, all of the paddy soils studied contained low Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr concentrations compared to levels found in the upland crop areas. This study indicated that soils derived from marine, alluvial and peat deposits were naturally low in heavy metals as compared to those from weathered bedrocks. The results showed that there was wide variation in the concentration of heavy metals in the studied areas and they occurred in the following decreasing order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd. Except for Mn, all the other heavy metals were concentrated mostly in the RR and OO fractions. On the other hand, the ELFE and AR Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr were undetected in some of the study areas. The results strongly suggest that heavy metals in these areas accumulated in the unavailable forms (RR and OO fractions), hence the low bioavailability (ELFE and AR fractions) of heavy metals in the soil samples. Elevated levels of Mn in Arau suggested heavy use of agrochemical materials in paddy planting activities in addition to the natural contribution of Mn from the weathered bedrock surrounding the area.",
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AU - Jusoh, Khairiah

AU - Jamil, Habibah

AU - Isahak, Anizan

AU - Maimon, A.

AU - Abdullah, Aminah

AU - Sahid, Ismail

PY - 2009

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N2 - This study was conducted to determine the status of heavy metal contamination, their bioavailability in soils and the factors controlling their accumulation. Five sampling sites were selected randomly from Kedah (Jitra, Yan and Kerpan district) and Perlis (Arau district). A site in Langkawi, that practised organic paddy farming culture was used as the control. The heavy metals in the soils were extracted using the sequential extraction method, which consisted of four fractions including the easily leachable and ion exchange (ELFE), acid reducible (AR), oxidizable organic (OO) and resistant (RR) fractions. Generally, all of the paddy soils studied contained low Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cr concentrations compared to levels found in the upland crop areas. This study indicated that soils derived from marine, alluvial and peat deposits were naturally low in heavy metals as compared to those from weathered bedrocks. The results showed that there was wide variation in the concentration of heavy metals in the studied areas and they occurred in the following decreasing order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Cd. Except for Mn, all the other heavy metals were concentrated mostly in the RR and OO fractions. On the other hand, the ELFE and AR Cu, Pb, Cd and Cr were undetected in some of the study areas. The results strongly suggest that heavy metals in these areas accumulated in the unavailable forms (RR and OO fractions), hence the low bioavailability (ELFE and AR fractions) of heavy metals in the soil samples. Elevated levels of Mn in Arau suggested heavy use of agrochemical materials in paddy planting activities in addition to the natural contribution of Mn from the weathered bedrock surrounding the area.

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