Constructing bio-templated 3D porous microtubular C-doped g-C3N4 with tunable band structure and enhanced charge carrier separation

Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, M. F. M. Zain, Lorna Effery Minggu, Mohammad Kassim, Nor Aishah Saidina Amin, W. N. W. Salleh, Mohd Nur Ikhmal Salehmin, Mohd Faizal Md Nasir, Zul Adlan Mohd Hir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

For the first time, the bio-templated porous microtubular C-doped (BTPMC) g-C3N4 with tunable band structure was successfully prepared by simple thermal condensation approach using urea as precursors and kapok fibre which provides a dual function as a bio-templates and in-situ carbon dopant. Prior to the thermal condensation process, the impregnation strategies (i.e. direct wet and hydrothermal impregnation) of urea on the treated kapok fibre (t-KF) were compared to obtained well-constructed bio-templated porous microtubular C-doped g-C3N4. The details on a physicochemical characteristic of the fabricated samples were comprehensively analyze using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption, Thermogravimetric (TGA), and UV–vis spectroscopy. Our finding indicated that the hydrothermal impregnation strategy resulted in well-constructed microtubular structure and more carbon substitution in sp2-hybridized nitrogen atoms of g-C3N4 as compared to the direct wet impregnation. Also, compared to pure g-C3N4, the fabricated BTPMC g-C3N4 exhibited extended photoresponse from the ultraviolet (UV) to visible and near-infrared regions and narrower bandgap. The bandgap easily tuned with the increased t-KF loading in urea precursor which responsible for in-situ carbon doping. Moreover, as compared to pristine g-C3N4 dramatic suppression of charge recombination of the BTPMC g-C3N4 was confirmed through photoluminescence, photocurrent response, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resultants BTPMC g-C3N4 possesses more stable structure, promoted charge separation, and suitable energy levels of conduction and valence bands for photocatalysis application.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)265-279
Number of pages15
JournalApplied Catalysis B: Environmental
Volume236
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2018

Fingerprint

Charge carriers
Impregnation
Band structure
urea
Urea
Carbon
carbon
spectroscopy
Fibers
Condensation
Energy gap
Doping (additives)
Infrared radiation
X-ray spectroscopy
Fourier transform
recombination
Photocatalysis
condensation
transmission electron microscopy
desorption

Keywords

  • 3D micro-tubular structure
  • Charge separation
  • Doping
  • g-CN
  • Kapok fibre

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology

Cite this

Constructing bio-templated 3D porous microtubular C-doped g-C3N4 with tunable band structure and enhanced charge carrier separation. / Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; M. Zain, M. F.; Effery Minggu, Lorna; Kassim, Mohammad; Saidina Amin, Nor Aishah; W. Salleh, W. N.; Salehmin, Mohd Nur Ikhmal; Md Nasir, Mohd Faizal; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan.

In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 236, 15.11.2018, p. 265-279.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa ; M. Zain, M. F. ; Effery Minggu, Lorna ; Kassim, Mohammad ; Saidina Amin, Nor Aishah ; W. Salleh, W. N. ; Salehmin, Mohd Nur Ikhmal ; Md Nasir, Mohd Faizal ; Mohd Hir, Zul Adlan. / Constructing bio-templated 3D porous microtubular C-doped g-C3N4 with tunable band structure and enhanced charge carrier separation. In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 2018 ; Vol. 236. pp. 265-279.
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AU - Effery Minggu, Lorna

AU - Kassim, Mohammad

AU - Saidina Amin, Nor Aishah

AU - W. Salleh, W. N.

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