Geologi pemeliharaan dan pemuliharaan bekas terowong Sungai Lembing, Kuantan, Pahang sebagai tapak warisan geologi

Translated title of the contribution: Conservation geology and rehabilitation of old tunnels at Sungai Lembing, Kuantan, Pahang as a geological heritage site

Mohd Hariri Arifin, A. Ghani Rafek, Ibrahim Abdullah, Mohd. Rozi Umor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Sungai Lembing was a tin mining area that was operated by the Pahang Consolidated Company Limited (PCCL) from 1906 to 1986. Due to the drop in the tin price during 1985, this mine wound down its operation until it was closed in 1986. Tunnels at Sungai Lembing have a total length of 5 km and the mine was operated as a shaft mine. After the mining operation was stopped, no conservation and preservation work has been done. The state government of Pahang through the Kuantan Municipal Council is developing this area for tourism. Hence, studies of tunnel stability and detail mapping including rock mass classification have been done. The classification of rock mass for 520 m of tunnel using the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system was conduted. A large part of the tunnel is classified as class III (fair rock) while the middle part is class IV (poor) and V (very poor). For the flooded areas, a drainage system is needed at the side of tunnel to drain the water out of the mine. Small rock-fall areas can be rehabilitated by back-filling to make the tunnel opening more uniform and for large scale rock-fall continuous cast concrete lining and water drainage system after back-filling should be installed. For rock structure in the tunnel to be observed in its natural conditions, crown bar or forepole is suggested. Almost all support material from past operations especially timber support at the roof of tunnel is in poor condition and needs to be replaced. Mapping of discontinuities and structures found three main structures that control the tunnel stability at Sungai Lembing, which are faults, folds and joints. Complex folds were recorded at locality 8 and at the beginning of locality 9. Strike direction is to north with average dip value of 40° and represents a major syncline limb at the west area. A dominant fault was observed at locality L9R4. Density of joints is high at all localities. Overall, a total of 19 localities were mapped, but some parts of the tunnels still cannot be mapped because of safety concerns and need further study.

Original languageUndefined/Unknown
Pages (from-to)61-66
Number of pages6
JournalBulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia
Issue number56
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010

Fingerprint

tunnel
geology
rock
tin
rehabilitation
rock mass classification
fold
syncline
shaft
drain
roof
limb
timber
dip
discontinuity
tourism
safety
water

Keywords

  • Conservation
  • Mining history
  • Rock mass quality
  • Structural geology
  • Sungai Lembing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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title = "Geologi pemeliharaan dan pemuliharaan bekas terowong Sungai Lembing, Kuantan, Pahang sebagai tapak warisan geologi",
abstract = "Sungai Lembing was a tin mining area that was operated by the Pahang Consolidated Company Limited (PCCL) from 1906 to 1986. Due to the drop in the tin price during 1985, this mine wound down its operation until it was closed in 1986. Tunnels at Sungai Lembing have a total length of 5 km and the mine was operated as a shaft mine. After the mining operation was stopped, no conservation and preservation work has been done. The state government of Pahang through the Kuantan Municipal Council is developing this area for tourism. Hence, studies of tunnel stability and detail mapping including rock mass classification have been done. The classification of rock mass for 520 m of tunnel using the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system was conduted. A large part of the tunnel is classified as class III (fair rock) while the middle part is class IV (poor) and V (very poor). For the flooded areas, a drainage system is needed at the side of tunnel to drain the water out of the mine. Small rock-fall areas can be rehabilitated by back-filling to make the tunnel opening more uniform and for large scale rock-fall continuous cast concrete lining and water drainage system after back-filling should be installed. For rock structure in the tunnel to be observed in its natural conditions, crown bar or forepole is suggested. Almost all support material from past operations especially timber support at the roof of tunnel is in poor condition and needs to be replaced. Mapping of discontinuities and structures found three main structures that control the tunnel stability at Sungai Lembing, which are faults, folds and joints. Complex folds were recorded at locality 8 and at the beginning of locality 9. Strike direction is to north with average dip value of 40° and represents a major syncline limb at the west area. A dominant fault was observed at locality L9R4. Density of joints is high at all localities. Overall, a total of 19 localities were mapped, but some parts of the tunnels still cannot be mapped because of safety concerns and need further study.",
keywords = "Conservation, Mining history, Rock mass quality, Structural geology, Sungai Lembing",
author = "Arifin, {Mohd Hariri} and {Ghani Rafek}, A. and Ibrahim Abdullah and Umor, {Mohd. Rozi}",
year = "2010",
month = "12",
language = "Undefined/Unknown",
pages = "61--66",
journal = "Bulletin of the Geological Society of Malaysia",
issn = "0126-6187",
publisher = "Persatuan Geologi Malaysia",
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T1 - Geologi pemeliharaan dan pemuliharaan bekas terowong Sungai Lembing, Kuantan, Pahang sebagai tapak warisan geologi

AU - Arifin, Mohd Hariri

AU - Ghani Rafek, A.

AU - Abdullah, Ibrahim

AU - Umor, Mohd. Rozi

PY - 2010/12

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N2 - Sungai Lembing was a tin mining area that was operated by the Pahang Consolidated Company Limited (PCCL) from 1906 to 1986. Due to the drop in the tin price during 1985, this mine wound down its operation until it was closed in 1986. Tunnels at Sungai Lembing have a total length of 5 km and the mine was operated as a shaft mine. After the mining operation was stopped, no conservation and preservation work has been done. The state government of Pahang through the Kuantan Municipal Council is developing this area for tourism. Hence, studies of tunnel stability and detail mapping including rock mass classification have been done. The classification of rock mass for 520 m of tunnel using the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system was conduted. A large part of the tunnel is classified as class III (fair rock) while the middle part is class IV (poor) and V (very poor). For the flooded areas, a drainage system is needed at the side of tunnel to drain the water out of the mine. Small rock-fall areas can be rehabilitated by back-filling to make the tunnel opening more uniform and for large scale rock-fall continuous cast concrete lining and water drainage system after back-filling should be installed. For rock structure in the tunnel to be observed in its natural conditions, crown bar or forepole is suggested. Almost all support material from past operations especially timber support at the roof of tunnel is in poor condition and needs to be replaced. Mapping of discontinuities and structures found three main structures that control the tunnel stability at Sungai Lembing, which are faults, folds and joints. Complex folds were recorded at locality 8 and at the beginning of locality 9. Strike direction is to north with average dip value of 40° and represents a major syncline limb at the west area. A dominant fault was observed at locality L9R4. Density of joints is high at all localities. Overall, a total of 19 localities were mapped, but some parts of the tunnels still cannot be mapped because of safety concerns and need further study.

AB - Sungai Lembing was a tin mining area that was operated by the Pahang Consolidated Company Limited (PCCL) from 1906 to 1986. Due to the drop in the tin price during 1985, this mine wound down its operation until it was closed in 1986. Tunnels at Sungai Lembing have a total length of 5 km and the mine was operated as a shaft mine. After the mining operation was stopped, no conservation and preservation work has been done. The state government of Pahang through the Kuantan Municipal Council is developing this area for tourism. Hence, studies of tunnel stability and detail mapping including rock mass classification have been done. The classification of rock mass for 520 m of tunnel using the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system was conduted. A large part of the tunnel is classified as class III (fair rock) while the middle part is class IV (poor) and V (very poor). For the flooded areas, a drainage system is needed at the side of tunnel to drain the water out of the mine. Small rock-fall areas can be rehabilitated by back-filling to make the tunnel opening more uniform and for large scale rock-fall continuous cast concrete lining and water drainage system after back-filling should be installed. For rock structure in the tunnel to be observed in its natural conditions, crown bar or forepole is suggested. Almost all support material from past operations especially timber support at the roof of tunnel is in poor condition and needs to be replaced. Mapping of discontinuities and structures found three main structures that control the tunnel stability at Sungai Lembing, which are faults, folds and joints. Complex folds were recorded at locality 8 and at the beginning of locality 9. Strike direction is to north with average dip value of 40° and represents a major syncline limb at the west area. A dominant fault was observed at locality L9R4. Density of joints is high at all localities. Overall, a total of 19 localities were mapped, but some parts of the tunnels still cannot be mapped because of safety concerns and need further study.

KW - Conservation

KW - Mining history

KW - Rock mass quality

KW - Structural geology

KW - Sungai Lembing

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