Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

Anas Ahmad Jamhari, Mazrura Sahani, Mohd Talib Latif, Chan Kok Meng, Hock Seng Tan, Firoz Khan, Norhayati Mohd Tahir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33ngm-3 to 2.97ngm-3, 2.24ngm-3 to 4.84ngm-3 and 1.64ngm-3 to 3.45ngm-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) from exposure to airborne BaPeq is negligible at all sampling sites for all age specific group.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-27
Number of pages12
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume86
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014

Fingerprint

PAH
urban area
health risk
fluoranthene
traffic emission
pyrene
principal component analysis
risk assessment
filter
valley
ambient air
sampler
methanol
particulate matter
natural gas
gas chromatography
monsoon
glass
sampling
analysis

Keywords

  • Diagnostic ratio
  • Health risk assessment
  • PAHs
  • Particulate matter
  • Principal component analysis
  • Toxic equivalent factors
  • Traffic emission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia. / Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Kok Meng, Chan; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 86, 04.2014, p. 16-27.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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