Concentration and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Puteri Nurafidah Hosaini, Firoz Khan, Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa, Norhaniza Amil, Noorlin Mohamad, Shoffian Amin Jaafar, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Talib Latif

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The accumulation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air affects air quality through the generation of surface level ozone and secondary organic aerosol. A study of the distribution and source apportionment of VOCs was conducted at two stations to investigate the air quality status of Kuala Lumpur. Samples of ambient air were collected into Tedlar sampling bags using an air sampling pump and then pre-concentrated with solid-phase micro-extraction fibre. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was employed to measure the VOC species. An absolute principal component score–multiple linear regression (APCS–MLR) model was then applied to identify the possible source contributions of VOCs. Seventeen VOCs were detected, and methylene chloride (243 ± 241 ppbv) was the most abundant species at both stations. Within the benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene group of VOCs, toluene was dominant with an average of 135 ± 202 ppbv, followed by p-xylene (41.3 ± 24.7 ppbv), ethyl benzene (34.0 ± 32.6 ppbv) and benzene (18.2 ± 12.9 ppbv). A strong correlation between benzene and toluene (p < 0.01, r = 0.65) indicated the influence of motor vehicle emissions during the sampling period. The APCS–MLR results indicated that the source contributors for VOCs at the sampling stations were gasoline evaporation (31 %), motor vehicle exhaust/solvent (22 %), motor vehicle emissions (21 %), petrol pump/solvent usage (15 %) and industrial emissions (10 %).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalNatural Hazards
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 3 Sep 2016

Fingerprint

ambient air
volatile organic compound
benzene
toluene
pump
air quality
sampling
air sampling
industrial emission
BTEX
xylene
source apportionment
spectrometry
evaporation
ozone
chloride
aerosol
gas
station

Keywords

  • BTEX
  • Congested areas
  • Residential–urban environment
  • Source apportionment
  • VOCs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Concentration and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. / Hosaini, Puteri Nurafidah; Khan, Firoz; Mustaffa, Nur Ili Hamizah; Amil, Norhaniza; Mohamad, Noorlin; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Latif, Mohd Talib.

In: Natural Hazards, 03.09.2016, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hosaini, Puteri Nurafidah ; Khan, Firoz ; Mustaffa, Nur Ili Hamizah ; Amil, Norhaniza ; Mohamad, Noorlin ; Jaafar, Shoffian Amin ; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul ; Latif, Mohd Talib. / Concentration and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the ambient air of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In: Natural Hazards. 2016 ; pp. 1-16.
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AU - Amil, Norhaniza

AU - Mohamad, Noorlin

AU - Jaafar, Shoffian Amin

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AU - Latif, Mohd Talib

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AB - The accumulation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ambient air affects air quality through the generation of surface level ozone and secondary organic aerosol. A study of the distribution and source apportionment of VOCs was conducted at two stations to investigate the air quality status of Kuala Lumpur. Samples of ambient air were collected into Tedlar sampling bags using an air sampling pump and then pre-concentrated with solid-phase micro-extraction fibre. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was employed to measure the VOC species. An absolute principal component score–multiple linear regression (APCS–MLR) model was then applied to identify the possible source contributions of VOCs. Seventeen VOCs were detected, and methylene chloride (243 ± 241 ppbv) was the most abundant species at both stations. Within the benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene group of VOCs, toluene was dominant with an average of 135 ± 202 ppbv, followed by p-xylene (41.3 ± 24.7 ppbv), ethyl benzene (34.0 ± 32.6 ppbv) and benzene (18.2 ± 12.9 ppbv). A strong correlation between benzene and toluene (p < 0.01, r = 0.65) indicated the influence of motor vehicle emissions during the sampling period. The APCS–MLR results indicated that the source contributors for VOCs at the sampling stations were gasoline evaporation (31 %), motor vehicle exhaust/solvent (22 %), motor vehicle emissions (21 %), petrol pump/solvent usage (15 %) and industrial emissions (10 %).

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