Compositional analysis of ancient bricks at site 2211, candi pengkalan bujang, kedah

Zuliskandar Ramli, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd Rahman, Abdul Latif Samian, Adnan Jusoh, Yunus Sauman, Othman Mohd Yatim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Archaeological research at Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 2211) which is located at Pengkalan Bujang, Kedah was conducted in 2008 and was carried out by researchers from the National University of Malaysia (UKM). The site is believed to be a new site because based on the Quaritch-Wales report, the site based on its location is not in the report that was published by Quaritch-Wales. Based on its orientation of northeast-southwest, which is the same orientation as Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 22), hence this Candi or temple was of the Buddhist religion and was constructed between the 11th century to the 13th century AD. Composition analysis of bricks at this site was conducted to determine whether the source of the raw material is local, namely clay or otherwise. The technique used is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique to determine the mineral phases of the bricks and also the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique to determine the major element and trace element content of the bricks. The mineral content found in the ancient bricks of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 2211) consists of quartz, microcline, muscovite and minor minerals such as albite and geothite. Major element and trace element content also show that the raw materials used were derived from the basin of the Muda River, Bujang River and the surrounding areas of Kota sub-district. Indirectly, this study proves that local raw material was used to produce bricks at this site.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3027-3033
Number of pages7
JournalResearch Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology
Volume6
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Brick
Raw materials
Minerals
Trace elements
Chemical elements
Rivers
Catchments
Quartz
Clay
Fluorescence
X ray diffraction
X rays
Chemical analysis

Keywords

  • Ancient bricks
  • Bujang River
  • Bujang Valley
  • Muda River
  • Pengkalan Bujang
  • X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
  • X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering(all)
  • Computer Science(all)

Cite this

Compositional analysis of ancient bricks at site 2211, candi pengkalan bujang, kedah. / Ramli, Zuliskandar; Rahman, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd; Samian, Abdul Latif; Jusoh, Adnan; Sauman, Yunus; Yatim, Othman Mohd.

In: Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 16, 2013, p. 3027-3033.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ramli, Zuliskandar ; Rahman, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abd ; Samian, Abdul Latif ; Jusoh, Adnan ; Sauman, Yunus ; Yatim, Othman Mohd. / Compositional analysis of ancient bricks at site 2211, candi pengkalan bujang, kedah. In: Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 2013 ; Vol. 6, No. 16. pp. 3027-3033.
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