Comparison of heavy metal levels in natural spring and bottled drinking water in Klang Valley, Malaysia

J. Mohd Hasni, M. Aminnuddin, Z. Ariza, A. Azwani, E. A. Engku Nurul Syuhadah, J. Nor Asikin, M. Nor Dalila

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A spring is a result of karsts topography where surface water has infiltrated the earth's surface recharge area, becoming part of groundwater and emerges from below to become natural spring water. From few observations, local people tend to consume this water directly for many health reasons. The objective of the study was to determine the concentration of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in natural water resources and bottled drinking water sources, and compared with the existing standard. This field assessment was carried out in 2014 as part of the educational module for public health master student. About 13 water samples were collected directly from the tubing into the pre-washed sample bottle and rinse with the sampling water in the field. Sample preservation was achieved by acidifying to pH less 4.0 with nitric acid (HNO3). Samples were stored in a cooler with temperature between 0 to 4°C. Heavy metals were analysed by standard method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GFAAS) with Zeeman's correction. Pb and Cd content were analysed from 13 samples which consists of eight natural spring water and five flavoured bottled drinking water. The result showed that Pb content in spring water ranges between 1.8 and 37.3ppb, while the Cd content in spring water ranges between 3.0 and 23.0ppb. In the commercialised drinking water, the amount of Pb ranges between 0.4 and 2.6 ppb, while the content of Cd ranges between 0.8 and 7.0 ppb. This study indicates that there are high content of Pb and Cd in most of the natural spring water points and some bottled drinking water that are available within Klang Valley. In the absence of any specific point sources, the possibility of urban area and high traffic source leading to run off as well as rock types may result in variations observed. Hence, very worrying, especially that these sources of water were consumed directly as drinking water or eye drops without knowing its content. Further tests, coupled with supportive soil and conductivity studies, are required to test all possible similar natural sources to safeguard the health of people.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-50
Number of pages5
JournalMalaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine
Volume17
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

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Natural Springs
Malaysia
Heavy Metals
Drinking Water
Water
Cadmium
Public Health Students
Water Resources
Nitric Acid
Graphite
Ophthalmic Solutions
Groundwater
Health

Keywords

  • Cd
  • Drinking water
  • Klang Valley
  • Pb
  • Spring natural water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Mohd Hasni, J., Aminnuddin, M., Ariza, Z., Azwani, A., Engku Nurul Syuhadah, E. A., Nor Asikin, J., & Nor Dalila, M. (2017). Comparison of heavy metal levels in natural spring and bottled drinking water in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 17(1), 46-50.

Comparison of heavy metal levels in natural spring and bottled drinking water in Klang Valley, Malaysia. / Mohd Hasni, J.; Aminnuddin, M.; Ariza, Z.; Azwani, A.; Engku Nurul Syuhadah, E. A.; Nor Asikin, J.; Nor Dalila, M.

In: Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 46-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Mohd Hasni, J, Aminnuddin, M, Ariza, Z, Azwani, A, Engku Nurul Syuhadah, EA, Nor Asikin, J & Nor Dalila, M 2017, 'Comparison of heavy metal levels in natural spring and bottled drinking water in Klang Valley, Malaysia', Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 46-50.
Mohd Hasni J, Aminnuddin M, Ariza Z, Azwani A, Engku Nurul Syuhadah EA, Nor Asikin J et al. Comparison of heavy metal levels in natural spring and bottled drinking water in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 2017 Jan 1;17(1):46-50.
Mohd Hasni, J. ; Aminnuddin, M. ; Ariza, Z. ; Azwani, A. ; Engku Nurul Syuhadah, E. A. ; Nor Asikin, J. ; Nor Dalila, M. / Comparison of heavy metal levels in natural spring and bottled drinking water in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In: Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine. 2017 ; Vol. 17, No. 1. pp. 46-50.
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