Cluster analysis of typhoid cases in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Typhoid fever is still a major public health problem globally as well as in Malaysia. This study was done to identify the spatial epidemiology of typhoid fever in the Kota Bharu District of Malaysia as a first step to developing more advanced analysis of the whole country. The main characteristic of the epidemiological pattern that interested us was whether typhoid cases occurred in clusters or whether they were evenly distributed throughout the area. We also wanted to know at what spatial distances they were clustered. All confirmed typhoid cases that were reported to the Kota Bharu District Health Department from the year 2001 to June of 2005 were taken as the samples. From the home address of the cases, the location of the house was traced and a coordinate was taken using handheld GPS devices. Spatial statistical analysis was done to determine the distribution of typhoid cases, whether clustered, random or dispersed. The spatial statistical analysis was done using CrimeStat III software to determine whether typhoid cases occur in clusters, and later on to determine at what distances it clustered. From 736 cases involved in the study there was significant clustering for cases occurring in the years 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2005. There was no significant clustering in year 2004. Typhoid clustering also occurred strongly for distances up to 6 km. This study shows that typhoid cases occur in clusters, and this method could be applicable to describe spatial epidemiology for a specific area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-182
Number of pages8
JournalMedical Journal of Indonesia
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2008

Fingerprint

Typhoid Fever
Malaysia
Cluster Analysis
Spatial Analysis
Epidemiology
Software
Public Health
Equipment and Supplies
Health

Keywords

  • Clustering
  • GIS
  • Spatial epidemiology
  • Typhoid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Cluster analysis of typhoid cases in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. / Safian, Nazarudin; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Idrus, Shaharudin; Hamzah, Wan Mansor.

In: Medical Journal of Indonesia, Vol. 17, No. 3, 01.07.2008, p. 175-182.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{8d99a95f639645c2b95e10c9cd0f1e14,
title = "Cluster analysis of typhoid cases in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia",
abstract = "Typhoid fever is still a major public health problem globally as well as in Malaysia. This study was done to identify the spatial epidemiology of typhoid fever in the Kota Bharu District of Malaysia as a first step to developing more advanced analysis of the whole country. The main characteristic of the epidemiological pattern that interested us was whether typhoid cases occurred in clusters or whether they were evenly distributed throughout the area. We also wanted to know at what spatial distances they were clustered. All confirmed typhoid cases that were reported to the Kota Bharu District Health Department from the year 2001 to June of 2005 were taken as the samples. From the home address of the cases, the location of the house was traced and a coordinate was taken using handheld GPS devices. Spatial statistical analysis was done to determine the distribution of typhoid cases, whether clustered, random or dispersed. The spatial statistical analysis was done using CrimeStat III software to determine whether typhoid cases occur in clusters, and later on to determine at what distances it clustered. From 736 cases involved in the study there was significant clustering for cases occurring in the years 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2005. There was no significant clustering in year 2004. Typhoid clustering also occurred strongly for distances up to 6 km. This study shows that typhoid cases occur in clusters, and this method could be applicable to describe spatial epidemiology for a specific area.",
keywords = "Clustering, GIS, Spatial epidemiology, Typhoid",
author = "Nazarudin Safian and Shah, {Shamsul Azhar} and Shaharudin Idrus and Hamzah, {Wan Mansor}",
year = "2008",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.13181/mji.v17i3.319",
language = "English",
volume = "17",
pages = "175--182",
journal = "Medical Journal of Indonesia",
issn = "0853-1773",
publisher = "Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cluster analysis of typhoid cases in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia

AU - Safian, Nazarudin

AU - Shah, Shamsul Azhar

AU - Idrus, Shaharudin

AU - Hamzah, Wan Mansor

PY - 2008/7/1

Y1 - 2008/7/1

N2 - Typhoid fever is still a major public health problem globally as well as in Malaysia. This study was done to identify the spatial epidemiology of typhoid fever in the Kota Bharu District of Malaysia as a first step to developing more advanced analysis of the whole country. The main characteristic of the epidemiological pattern that interested us was whether typhoid cases occurred in clusters or whether they were evenly distributed throughout the area. We also wanted to know at what spatial distances they were clustered. All confirmed typhoid cases that were reported to the Kota Bharu District Health Department from the year 2001 to June of 2005 were taken as the samples. From the home address of the cases, the location of the house was traced and a coordinate was taken using handheld GPS devices. Spatial statistical analysis was done to determine the distribution of typhoid cases, whether clustered, random or dispersed. The spatial statistical analysis was done using CrimeStat III software to determine whether typhoid cases occur in clusters, and later on to determine at what distances it clustered. From 736 cases involved in the study there was significant clustering for cases occurring in the years 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2005. There was no significant clustering in year 2004. Typhoid clustering also occurred strongly for distances up to 6 km. This study shows that typhoid cases occur in clusters, and this method could be applicable to describe spatial epidemiology for a specific area.

AB - Typhoid fever is still a major public health problem globally as well as in Malaysia. This study was done to identify the spatial epidemiology of typhoid fever in the Kota Bharu District of Malaysia as a first step to developing more advanced analysis of the whole country. The main characteristic of the epidemiological pattern that interested us was whether typhoid cases occurred in clusters or whether they were evenly distributed throughout the area. We also wanted to know at what spatial distances they were clustered. All confirmed typhoid cases that were reported to the Kota Bharu District Health Department from the year 2001 to June of 2005 were taken as the samples. From the home address of the cases, the location of the house was traced and a coordinate was taken using handheld GPS devices. Spatial statistical analysis was done to determine the distribution of typhoid cases, whether clustered, random or dispersed. The spatial statistical analysis was done using CrimeStat III software to determine whether typhoid cases occur in clusters, and later on to determine at what distances it clustered. From 736 cases involved in the study there was significant clustering for cases occurring in the years 2001, 2002, 2003 and 2005. There was no significant clustering in year 2004. Typhoid clustering also occurred strongly for distances up to 6 km. This study shows that typhoid cases occur in clusters, and this method could be applicable to describe spatial epidemiology for a specific area.

KW - Clustering

KW - GIS

KW - Spatial epidemiology

KW - Typhoid

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85008690407&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85008690407&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.13181/mji.v17i3.319

DO - 10.13181/mji.v17i3.319

M3 - Article

VL - 17

SP - 175

EP - 182

JO - Medical Journal of Indonesia

JF - Medical Journal of Indonesia

SN - 0853-1773

IS - 3

ER -