Chemical composition of the haze in Malaysia 2005

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Abstract

A study of the chemical composition of the haze was conducted in two areas: Klang Valley and Malacca in Peninsular Malaysia, from July to September of 2005. The data is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring for particulate matter (PM10), pH of rainwater, anions (NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-), cations (NH4 +, Na2+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni) and a meteorology parameter, the wind speed. The monthly concentrations of PM10 for the Klang Valley ranged from 35.90 to 104.46μgm-3 whilst in Malacca the concentration ranged from 35.80 to 54.30μgm-3 which was over the permitted level of 50μgm-3 for the time period of a month as stipulated by the Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE). The pH of rainwater collected in the Klang Valley ranged from 4.26±0.12 to 5.45±0.58, while in Malacca the pH varied from 4.35±0.20 to 5.43±0.12. The mean concentrations for NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NH4 +, Ca2+, Na2+, K+, Mg2+ for three months in the Klang Valley were 46.40±11.16μeqL-1, 34.84±9.82μeqL-1, 12.34±4.13μeqL-1, 29.28±11.02μeqL-1, 8.92±0.88μeqL-1, 8.18±1.00μeqL-1, 2.08±0.34μeqL-1, 1.38±0.24μeqL-1, respectively, whilst in Malacca, the mean concentrations were 24.46±6.99μeqL-1, 28.4±7.24μeqL-1, 27.32±7.36μeqL-1, 30.92±1.26μeqL-1, 4.10±2.56μeqL-1, 21.44±7.54μeqL-1, 3.18±1.82μeqL-1 and 1.54±1.66μeqL-1, respectively. These values were lower than the non haze period (January to March and April to June) except for the Cl- ion which recorded the highest anion in Malacca. However, the mean values were similar for the period from October to December. The mean concentrations of metals showed that CuCu≥Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were FeZn≥Cu≥Mn≥Pb≥Ni.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1005-1010
Number of pages6
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume77
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013

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haze
chemical composition
valley
rainwater
anion
meteorology
particulate matter
cation
wind velocity
heavy metal
ion
metal

Keywords

  • Chemical composition
  • Haze
  • Particulate matter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Chemical composition of the haze in Malaysia 2005. / Sulaiman, Norela; Saidah, M. S.; Mahmud, Mastura.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 77, 10.2013, p. 1005-1010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{280701265feb4784a0a9842e18edacaa,
title = "Chemical composition of the haze in Malaysia 2005",
abstract = "A study of the chemical composition of the haze was conducted in two areas: Klang Valley and Malacca in Peninsular Malaysia, from July to September of 2005. The data is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring for particulate matter (PM10), pH of rainwater, anions (NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-), cations (NH4 +, Na2+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni) and a meteorology parameter, the wind speed. The monthly concentrations of PM10 for the Klang Valley ranged from 35.90 to 104.46μgm-3 whilst in Malacca the concentration ranged from 35.80 to 54.30μgm-3 which was over the permitted level of 50μgm-3 for the time period of a month as stipulated by the Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE). The pH of rainwater collected in the Klang Valley ranged from 4.26±0.12 to 5.45±0.58, while in Malacca the pH varied from 4.35±0.20 to 5.43±0.12. The mean concentrations for NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NH4 +, Ca2+, Na2+, K+, Mg2+ for three months in the Klang Valley were 46.40±11.16μeqL-1, 34.84±9.82μeqL-1, 12.34±4.13μeqL-1, 29.28±11.02μeqL-1, 8.92±0.88μeqL-1, 8.18±1.00μeqL-1, 2.08±0.34μeqL-1, 1.38±0.24μeqL-1, respectively, whilst in Malacca, the mean concentrations were 24.46±6.99μeqL-1, 28.4±7.24μeqL-1, 27.32±7.36μeqL-1, 30.92±1.26μeqL-1, 4.10±2.56μeqL-1, 21.44±7.54μeqL-1, 3.18±1.82μeqL-1 and 1.54±1.66μeqL-1, respectively. These values were lower than the non haze period (January to March and April to June) except for the Cl- ion which recorded the highest anion in Malacca. However, the mean values were similar for the period from October to December. The mean concentrations of metals showed that CuCu≥Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were FeZn≥Cu≥Mn≥Pb≥Ni.",
keywords = "Chemical composition, Haze, Particulate matter",
author = "Norela Sulaiman and Saidah, {M. S.} and Mastura Mahmud",
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AU - Saidah, M. S.

AU - Mahmud, Mastura

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N2 - A study of the chemical composition of the haze was conducted in two areas: Klang Valley and Malacca in Peninsular Malaysia, from July to September of 2005. The data is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring for particulate matter (PM10), pH of rainwater, anions (NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-), cations (NH4 +, Na2+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni) and a meteorology parameter, the wind speed. The monthly concentrations of PM10 for the Klang Valley ranged from 35.90 to 104.46μgm-3 whilst in Malacca the concentration ranged from 35.80 to 54.30μgm-3 which was over the permitted level of 50μgm-3 for the time period of a month as stipulated by the Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE). The pH of rainwater collected in the Klang Valley ranged from 4.26±0.12 to 5.45±0.58, while in Malacca the pH varied from 4.35±0.20 to 5.43±0.12. The mean concentrations for NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NH4 +, Ca2+, Na2+, K+, Mg2+ for three months in the Klang Valley were 46.40±11.16μeqL-1, 34.84±9.82μeqL-1, 12.34±4.13μeqL-1, 29.28±11.02μeqL-1, 8.92±0.88μeqL-1, 8.18±1.00μeqL-1, 2.08±0.34μeqL-1, 1.38±0.24μeqL-1, respectively, whilst in Malacca, the mean concentrations were 24.46±6.99μeqL-1, 28.4±7.24μeqL-1, 27.32±7.36μeqL-1, 30.92±1.26μeqL-1, 4.10±2.56μeqL-1, 21.44±7.54μeqL-1, 3.18±1.82μeqL-1 and 1.54±1.66μeqL-1, respectively. These values were lower than the non haze period (January to March and April to June) except for the Cl- ion which recorded the highest anion in Malacca. However, the mean values were similar for the period from October to December. The mean concentrations of metals showed that CuCu≥Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were FeZn≥Cu≥Mn≥Pb≥Ni.

AB - A study of the chemical composition of the haze was conducted in two areas: Klang Valley and Malacca in Peninsular Malaysia, from July to September of 2005. The data is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring for particulate matter (PM10), pH of rainwater, anions (NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-), cations (NH4 +, Na2+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Ni) and a meteorology parameter, the wind speed. The monthly concentrations of PM10 for the Klang Valley ranged from 35.90 to 104.46μgm-3 whilst in Malacca the concentration ranged from 35.80 to 54.30μgm-3 which was over the permitted level of 50μgm-3 for the time period of a month as stipulated by the Department of Environment Malaysia (DOE). The pH of rainwater collected in the Klang Valley ranged from 4.26±0.12 to 5.45±0.58, while in Malacca the pH varied from 4.35±0.20 to 5.43±0.12. The mean concentrations for NO3 -, SO4 2-, Cl-, NH4 +, Ca2+, Na2+, K+, Mg2+ for three months in the Klang Valley were 46.40±11.16μeqL-1, 34.84±9.82μeqL-1, 12.34±4.13μeqL-1, 29.28±11.02μeqL-1, 8.92±0.88μeqL-1, 8.18±1.00μeqL-1, 2.08±0.34μeqL-1, 1.38±0.24μeqL-1, respectively, whilst in Malacca, the mean concentrations were 24.46±6.99μeqL-1, 28.4±7.24μeqL-1, 27.32±7.36μeqL-1, 30.92±1.26μeqL-1, 4.10±2.56μeqL-1, 21.44±7.54μeqL-1, 3.18±1.82μeqL-1 and 1.54±1.66μeqL-1, respectively. These values were lower than the non haze period (January to March and April to June) except for the Cl- ion which recorded the highest anion in Malacca. However, the mean values were similar for the period from October to December. The mean concentrations of metals showed that CuCu≥Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were Ni, whilst in Malacca, in descending order, were FeZn≥Cu≥Mn≥Pb≥Ni.

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