Characterization of nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) and its application in sono-Fenton process to remove COD in palm oil mill effluent

Mohd. Raihan Taha, A. H. Ibrahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

64 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) has received great attention for its capability to treat wastewater. One of its applications is in an advanced oxidation process (AOP) called the sono-Fenton process. This study presents the characterization of the nZVI particle by its particle size, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Results show that the average size of nZVI is 49 nm and it has two layers. The outer layer (shell) is comprised of iron oxides (i.e. FeO) while the core is elemental iron (Fe). At pH 2, nZVI was found to be a good replacement for iron sulfate (FeSO4) as a ferrous iron (Fe2+) source in the sono-Fenton process. In addition, the removal process of organic pollutants from diluted palm oil mill effluent (POME) was also accelerated by ultrasound, particularly at higher intensity and longer sonication time. Eighty percent (80%) of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed in 2 h instead of 24 h by silent degradation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
Volume2
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014

Fingerprint

Palm oil
Chemical oxygen demand
chemical oxygen demand
Effluents
mill
Iron
effluent
oil
iron
electron
organic pollutant
iron oxide
X-ray spectroscopy
Electron microscopes
replacement
X-ray diffraction
particle size
Image communication systems
shell
sulfate

Keywords

  • Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI)
  • Palm oil mill effluent (POME)
  • Sono-Fenton

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal

Cite this

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abstract = "Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) has received great attention for its capability to treat wastewater. One of its applications is in an advanced oxidation process (AOP) called the sono-Fenton process. This study presents the characterization of the nZVI particle by its particle size, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Results show that the average size of nZVI is 49 nm and it has two layers. The outer layer (shell) is comprised of iron oxides (i.e. FeO) while the core is elemental iron (Fe). At pH 2, nZVI was found to be a good replacement for iron sulfate (FeSO4) as a ferrous iron (Fe2+) source in the sono-Fenton process. In addition, the removal process of organic pollutants from diluted palm oil mill effluent (POME) was also accelerated by ultrasound, particularly at higher intensity and longer sonication time. Eighty percent (80{\%}) of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was removed in 2 h instead of 24 h by silent degradation.",
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