Characterization and toxicity of citral incorporated with nanostructured lipid carrier

Noraini Nordin, Swee Keong Yeap, Nur Rizi Zamberi, Nadiah Abu, Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Chee Wun How, Mas Jaffri Masarudin, Rasedee Abdullah, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The nanoparticle as a cancer drug delivery vehicle is rapidly under investigation due to its promising applicability as a novel drug delivery system for anticancer agents. This study describes the development, characterization and toxicity studies of a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system for citral. Citral was loaded into the NLC using high pressure homogenization methods. The characterizations of NLC- citral were then determined through various methods. Based on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis, NLC-Citral showed a spherical shape with an average diameter size of 54.12 ± 0.30 nm and a polydipersity index of 0.224 ± 0.005. The zeta potential of NLC-Citral was -12.73 ± 0.34 mV with an entrapment efficiency of 98.9 ± 0.124%, and drug loading of 9.84 ± 0.041%. Safety profile of the formulation was examined via in vitro and in vivo routes to study its effects toward normal cells. NLC-Citral exhibited no toxic effects towards the proliferation of mice splenocytes. Moreover, no mortality and toxic signs were observed in the treated groups after 28 days of treatment. There were also no significant alterations in serum biochemical analysis for all treatments. Increase in immunomodulatory effects of treated NLC-Citral and Citral groups was verified from the increase in CD4/CD3 and CD8/CD3 T cell population in both NLC-citral and citral treated splenocytes. This study suggests that NLC is a promising drug delivery system for citral as it has the potential in sustaining drug release without inducing any toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3916
JournalPeerJ
Volume2018
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

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citral
Toxicity
toxicity
Lipids
lipids
drug delivery systems
Poisons
Drug Delivery Systems
splenocytes
drugs

Keywords

  • Characterization
  • Citral
  • Nanostructured lipid carrier
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Nordin, N., Yeap, S. K., Zamberi, N. R., Abu, N., Mohamad, N. E., Rahman, H. S., ... Alitheen, N. B. (2018). Characterization and toxicity of citral incorporated with nanostructured lipid carrier. PeerJ, 2018(1), [e3916]. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3916

Characterization and toxicity of citral incorporated with nanostructured lipid carrier. / Nordin, Noraini; Yeap, Swee Keong; Zamberi, Nur Rizi; Abu, Nadiah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; How, Chee Wun; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri; Abdullah, Rasedee; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu.

In: PeerJ, Vol. 2018, No. 1, e3916, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nordin, N, Yeap, SK, Zamberi, NR, Abu, N, Mohamad, NE, Rahman, HS, How, CW, Masarudin, MJ, Abdullah, R & Alitheen, NB 2018, 'Characterization and toxicity of citral incorporated with nanostructured lipid carrier', PeerJ, vol. 2018, no. 1, e3916. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3916
Nordin N, Yeap SK, Zamberi NR, Abu N, Mohamad NE, Rahman HS et al. Characterization and toxicity of citral incorporated with nanostructured lipid carrier. PeerJ. 2018 Jan 1;2018(1). e3916. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.3916
Nordin, Noraini ; Yeap, Swee Keong ; Zamberi, Nur Rizi ; Abu, Nadiah ; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani ; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman ; How, Chee Wun ; Masarudin, Mas Jaffri ; Abdullah, Rasedee ; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu. / Characterization and toxicity of citral incorporated with nanostructured lipid carrier. In: PeerJ. 2018 ; Vol. 2018, No. 1.
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AB - The nanoparticle as a cancer drug delivery vehicle is rapidly under investigation due to its promising applicability as a novel drug delivery system for anticancer agents. This study describes the development, characterization and toxicity studies of a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) system for citral. Citral was loaded into the NLC using high pressure homogenization methods. The characterizations of NLC- citral were then determined through various methods. Based on Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis, NLC-Citral showed a spherical shape with an average diameter size of 54.12 ± 0.30 nm and a polydipersity index of 0.224 ± 0.005. The zeta potential of NLC-Citral was -12.73 ± 0.34 mV with an entrapment efficiency of 98.9 ± 0.124%, and drug loading of 9.84 ± 0.041%. Safety profile of the formulation was examined via in vitro and in vivo routes to study its effects toward normal cells. NLC-Citral exhibited no toxic effects towards the proliferation of mice splenocytes. Moreover, no mortality and toxic signs were observed in the treated groups after 28 days of treatment. There were also no significant alterations in serum biochemical analysis for all treatments. Increase in immunomodulatory effects of treated NLC-Citral and Citral groups was verified from the increase in CD4/CD3 and CD8/CD3 T cell population in both NLC-citral and citral treated splenocytes. This study suggests that NLC is a promising drug delivery system for citral as it has the potential in sustaining drug release without inducing any toxicity.

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