Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon

Doreena Dominick, Mohd Talib Latif, Ju Neng Liew, Firoz Khan, Norhaniza Amil, Mohammed Iqbal Mead, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Phang Siew Moi, Azizan Abu Samah, Matthew J. Ashfold, William T. Sturges, Neil R P Harris, Andrew D. Robinson, John A. Pyle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Particle mass concentrations (PM<inf>10</inf>, PM<inf>2.5</inf> and PM<inf>1</inf>) and particle number concentration ((PNC); 0.27 μm ≤ Dp ≤ 34.00 μm) were measured in the tropical coastal environment of Bachok, Kelantan on the Malaysian Peninsula bordering the southern edge of the South China Sea. Statistical methods were applied on a three-month hourly data set (9th January to 24th March 2014) to study the influence of north-easterly winds on the patterns of particle mass and PNC size distributions. The 24-h concentrations of particle mass obtained in this study were below the standard values detailed by the Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (RMAQG), United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and European Union (EU) except for PM<inf>2.5</inf>, which recorded a 24-h average of 30 ± 18 μg m<sup>-3</sup> and exceeded the World Health Organisation (WHO) threshold value (25 μg m<sup>-3</sup>). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that PNC with smaller diameter sizes (0.27-4.50 μm) showed a stronger influence, accounting for 57.6% of the variability in PNC data set. Concentrations of both particle mass and PNC increased steadily in the morning with a distinct peak observed at around 8.00 h, related to a combination of dispersion of accumulated particles overnight and local traffic. In addition to local anthropogenic, agricultural burning and forest fire activities, long-range transport also affects the study area. Hotspot and backward wind trajectory observations illustrated that the biomass burning episode (around February-March) significantly influenced PNC. Meteorological parameters influenced smaller size particles (i.e. PM<inf>1</inf> and Dp (0.27-0.43 μm)) the most.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-199
Number of pages13
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Volume117
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2015

Fingerprint

monsoon
coast
particle
tropical environment
World Health Organization
long range transport
biomass burning
forest fire
coastal zone
European Union
principal component analysis
air quality
trajectory
particle size

Keywords

  • Aerosols
  • Biomass episodes
  • Long-range transport
  • Meteorology
  • Multivariate analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science(all)

Cite this

Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon. / Dominick, Doreena; Latif, Mohd Talib; Liew, Ju Neng; Khan, Firoz; Amil, Norhaniza; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Moi, Phang Siew; Samah, Azizan Abu; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Sturges, William T.; Harris, Neil R P; Robinson, Andrew D.; Pyle, John A.

In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 117, 01.09.2015, p. 187-199.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dominick, Doreena ; Latif, Mohd Talib ; Liew, Ju Neng ; Khan, Firoz ; Amil, Norhaniza ; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal ; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul ; Moi, Phang Siew ; Samah, Azizan Abu ; Ashfold, Matthew J. ; Sturges, William T. ; Harris, Neil R P ; Robinson, Andrew D. ; Pyle, John A. / Characterisation of particle mass and number concentration on the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsula during the northeast monsoon. In: Atmospheric Environment. 2015 ; Vol. 117. pp. 187-199.
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AU - Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul

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AU - Samah, Azizan Abu

AU - Ashfold, Matthew J.

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