Characterisation and performance of three promising heterogeneous catalysts in transesterification of palm oil

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Abstract

In this work, the performance of three heterogeneous catalysts, namely potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, bulk calcium oxide, and nano-calcium oxide, in comparison with the homogeneous potassium hydroxide was studied in the transesterification of palm oil to produce methyl esters and glycerol. The physical and chemical properties of the heterogeneous catalysts were thoroughly characterized and determined using a number of analytical methods to assess their catalytic activities prior to transesterification. The reaction products were analysed using liquid chromatography and their properties were quantified based on the American Society of Testing and Materials and United State Pharmacopoeia standard methods. At the 65°C reaction temperature, the oil-to-methanol mole ratio of 1 : 15, 2.5 h of the reaction time, and catalyst (φr = 1: 40), potassium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, nano-calcium oxide, and bulk calcium oxide gave methyl ester yields of 97 %, 96 %, 94 %, and 90 %, respectively. The impregnation of γ-alumina with potassium hydroxide displayed a catalytic performance comparable with the performance of potassium hydroxide where the former could be physically separated via filtration resulting in a relatively greater purity of products. Other advantages included the longer reusability of the catalyst and more active sites with lower by-product formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)178-187
Number of pages10
JournalChemical Papers
Volume66
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012

Fingerprint

Potassium hydroxide
Palm oil
Transesterification
Lime
Catalysts
Aluminum Oxide
Alumina
Esters
Materials Testing
Pharmacopoeias
Liquid chromatography
Reusability
Glycerol
Reaction products
Impregnation
Liquid Chromatography
Chemical properties
Byproducts
Methanol
palm oil

Keywords

  • Fatty acid methyl ester
  • Heterogeneous catalysts
  • Nano-calcium oxide
  • Potassium hydroxide/alumina
  • Transesterification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

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abstract = "In this work, the performance of three heterogeneous catalysts, namely potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, bulk calcium oxide, and nano-calcium oxide, in comparison with the homogeneous potassium hydroxide was studied in the transesterification of palm oil to produce methyl esters and glycerol. The physical and chemical properties of the heterogeneous catalysts were thoroughly characterized and determined using a number of analytical methods to assess their catalytic activities prior to transesterification. The reaction products were analysed using liquid chromatography and their properties were quantified based on the American Society of Testing and Materials and United State Pharmacopoeia standard methods. At the 65°C reaction temperature, the oil-to-methanol mole ratio of 1 : 15, 2.5 h of the reaction time, and catalyst (φr = 1: 40), potassium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, nano-calcium oxide, and bulk calcium oxide gave methyl ester yields of 97 {\%}, 96 {\%}, 94 {\%}, and 90 {\%}, respectively. The impregnation of γ-alumina with potassium hydroxide displayed a catalytic performance comparable with the performance of potassium hydroxide where the former could be physically separated via filtration resulting in a relatively greater purity of products. Other advantages included the longer reusability of the catalyst and more active sites with lower by-product formation.",
keywords = "Fatty acid methyl ester, Heterogeneous catalysts, Nano-calcium oxide, Potassium hydroxide/alumina, Transesterification",
author = "{Wan Nor Roslam}, {Wan Isahak} and Manal Ismail and {Md Jahim}, Jamaliah and Jumat Salimon and Yarmo, {Mohd. Ambar}",
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T1 - Characterisation and performance of three promising heterogeneous catalysts in transesterification of palm oil

AU - Wan Nor Roslam, Wan Isahak

AU - Ismail, Manal

AU - Md Jahim, Jamaliah

AU - Salimon, Jumat

AU - Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar

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N2 - In this work, the performance of three heterogeneous catalysts, namely potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, bulk calcium oxide, and nano-calcium oxide, in comparison with the homogeneous potassium hydroxide was studied in the transesterification of palm oil to produce methyl esters and glycerol. The physical and chemical properties of the heterogeneous catalysts were thoroughly characterized and determined using a number of analytical methods to assess their catalytic activities prior to transesterification. The reaction products were analysed using liquid chromatography and their properties were quantified based on the American Society of Testing and Materials and United State Pharmacopoeia standard methods. At the 65°C reaction temperature, the oil-to-methanol mole ratio of 1 : 15, 2.5 h of the reaction time, and catalyst (φr = 1: 40), potassium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, nano-calcium oxide, and bulk calcium oxide gave methyl ester yields of 97 %, 96 %, 94 %, and 90 %, respectively. The impregnation of γ-alumina with potassium hydroxide displayed a catalytic performance comparable with the performance of potassium hydroxide where the former could be physically separated via filtration resulting in a relatively greater purity of products. Other advantages included the longer reusability of the catalyst and more active sites with lower by-product formation.

AB - In this work, the performance of three heterogeneous catalysts, namely potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, bulk calcium oxide, and nano-calcium oxide, in comparison with the homogeneous potassium hydroxide was studied in the transesterification of palm oil to produce methyl esters and glycerol. The physical and chemical properties of the heterogeneous catalysts were thoroughly characterized and determined using a number of analytical methods to assess their catalytic activities prior to transesterification. The reaction products were analysed using liquid chromatography and their properties were quantified based on the American Society of Testing and Materials and United State Pharmacopoeia standard methods. At the 65°C reaction temperature, the oil-to-methanol mole ratio of 1 : 15, 2.5 h of the reaction time, and catalyst (φr = 1: 40), potassium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide/γ-alumina, nano-calcium oxide, and bulk calcium oxide gave methyl ester yields of 97 %, 96 %, 94 %, and 90 %, respectively. The impregnation of γ-alumina with potassium hydroxide displayed a catalytic performance comparable with the performance of potassium hydroxide where the former could be physically separated via filtration resulting in a relatively greater purity of products. Other advantages included the longer reusability of the catalyst and more active sites with lower by-product formation.

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