Cassava starch biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals from kenaf fibers

S. Y Z Zainuddin, Ishak Ahmad, H. Kargarzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study highlights the potential of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from kenaf fibers as reinforcing fillers in starch-based biocomposites. By hydrolyzing kenaf fibers with 65 wt.% sulfuric acid, CNCs with diameters of 12 ± 3.4 nm were obtained. Cassava starch biocomposites were prepared using a solution casting method which includes 0-10 wt.% kenaf CNCs as fillers and glycerol/sorbitol (ratio of 50:50) as plasticizer. The composites were characterized by different techniques, including tensile tests, thermal stability tests, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), water uptake tests, and observation of the physical properties of the film cast. The CNCs appeared as white, shiny dots under FE-SEM with a good dispersion of the nanofillers within the starchy matrix. The tensile strength and modulus of the biocomposite films were significantly enhanced when compared to unfilled starch films. Transparent, thin, and flexible films were obtained from both the plain matrix and 6 wt.% CNC biocomposites, confirming that CNCs may be used as fillers without affecting the composite's transparency. Furthermore, incorporation of CNCs in the plasticized matrix led to a decrease in water sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-199
Number of pages11
JournalComposite Interfaces
Volume20
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Kenaf fibers
starches
Starch
cellulose
Cellulose
Nanocrystals
nanocrystals
fibers
fillers
Fillers
Field emission
field emission
matrices
Plasticizers
stability tests
Scanning electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
composite materials
plasticizers
Sorbitol

Keywords

  • Biocomposites
  • Cassava starch
  • Cellulose
  • Kenaf
  • Mechanical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this

Cassava starch biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals from kenaf fibers. / Zainuddin, S. Y Z; Ahmad, Ishak; Kargarzadeh, H.

In: Composite Interfaces, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2013, p. 189-199.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zainuddin, S. Y Z ; Ahmad, Ishak ; Kargarzadeh, H. / Cassava starch biocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals from kenaf fibers. In: Composite Interfaces. 2013 ; Vol. 20, No. 3. pp. 189-199.
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