Caregiver depression: The contributing role of depression in patients, stigma, social support and religiosity

Yee Chin Chai, Raynuha Mahadevan, Chong Guan Ng, Lai Fong Chan, Farahidah Md Dai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Depression has been well studied as part of caregiver burden among patients with severe mental illnesses. Curiously, though, there has been little data in terms of caregiver burden with specific focus on depression among caregivers of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Aim: This study aims to determine the rate of depression among caregivers of person with depression and its psychosocial correlates, which include stigma, perceived social support, religious commitment and the severity of the patient’s symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 165 patients diagnosed with MDD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) together with their caregivers. Apart from gathering social demographic data, patients were administered the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Rated Version (QIDS-SR 16), whereas the caregivers were required to answer Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Those who scored ⩾5 on PHQ-9 were further assessed with interviewer-rated M.I.N.I. to diagnose the presence of depression. Results: A total of 47 (28.5%) caregivers were found to have depressive symptoms. Out of that total, 13 (7.9%) were diagnosed to have MDD using M.I.N.I. From univariate analysis, factors associated with depression in caregivers were the severity of symptoms in patients (p <.001), personal stigma in caregivers (p =.037), the patients’ current depressive episode (p =.026) and lower perceived social support from friends (p =.048). From multivariate analysis, only the patients’ severity of depressive symptoms (p <.001) and personal stigma in caregivers (p =.048) were significantly associated with the caregivers’ depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the severity of patient depression and personal stigma of the caregivers were significant factors correlated with caregiver depression. Therefore, beyond optimizing the treatment of depression in patients, the issue of stigma among caregivers also needs to be addressed as a potential target of intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)578-588
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry
Volume64
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2018

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Social Support
Caregivers
Depression
Major Depressive Disorder
Interviews
Health
Religion
Statistical Factor Analysis
Multivariate Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography

Keywords

  • caregiver
  • Depression
  • religiosity
  • social support
  • stigma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Caregiver depression : The contributing role of depression in patients, stigma, social support and religiosity. / Chai, Yee Chin; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Ng, Chong Guan; Chan, Lai Fong; Md Dai, Farahidah.

In: International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Vol. 64, No. 6, 01.09.2018, p. 578-588.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Depression has been well studied as part of caregiver burden among patients with severe mental illnesses. Curiously, though, there has been little data in terms of caregiver burden with specific focus on depression among caregivers of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Aim: This study aims to determine the rate of depression among caregivers of person with depression and its psychosocial correlates, which include stigma, perceived social support, religious commitment and the severity of the patient’s symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 165 patients diagnosed with MDD using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) together with their caregivers. Apart from gathering social demographic data, patients were administered the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology–Self-Rated Version (QIDS-SR 16), whereas the caregivers were required to answer Patient Health Questionnaire–9 (PHQ-9), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) and Depression Stigma Scale (DSS). Those who scored ⩾5 on PHQ-9 were further assessed with interviewer-rated M.I.N.I. to diagnose the presence of depression. Results: A total of 47 (28.5{\%}) caregivers were found to have depressive symptoms. Out of that total, 13 (7.9{\%}) were diagnosed to have MDD using M.I.N.I. From univariate analysis, factors associated with depression in caregivers were the severity of symptoms in patients (p <.001), personal stigma in caregivers (p =.037), the patients’ current depressive episode (p =.026) and lower perceived social support from friends (p =.048). From multivariate analysis, only the patients’ severity of depressive symptoms (p <.001) and personal stigma in caregivers (p =.048) were significantly associated with the caregivers’ depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that the severity of patient depression and personal stigma of the caregivers were significant factors correlated with caregiver depression. Therefore, beyond optimizing the treatment of depression in patients, the issue of stigma among caregivers also needs to be addressed as a potential target of intervention.",
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