Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia

Noor Hassim Ismail, Norazman Mohd Rosli, Diana Mahat, Khairul Hazdi Yusof, Rosnah Ismail

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. Methods: This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Results: Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Conclusion: Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)331-337
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Journal of Malaysia
Volume71
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2016

Fingerprint

Urban Population
Malaysia
Rural Population
Cardiovascular Diseases
Hypertension
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Educational Status
Waist-Hip Ratio
Feeding Behavior
Diabetes Mellitus
Epidemiology
Obesity
Smoking
Myocardial Infarction
Databases
Depression

Keywords

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Malaysia
  • Risk factors
  • Urban and rural population

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia. / Ismail, Noor Hassim; Rosli, Norazman Mohd; Mahat, Diana; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi; Ismail, Rosnah.

In: Medical Journal of Malaysia, Vol. 71, No. 6, 01.12.2016, p. 331-337.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ismail, Noor Hassim ; Rosli, Norazman Mohd ; Mahat, Diana ; Yusof, Khairul Hazdi ; Ismail, Rosnah. / Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia. In: Medical Journal of Malaysia. 2016 ; Vol. 71, No. 6. pp. 331-337.
@article{9ddd09130edf45eaa66f1850cd90e6f4,
title = "Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia",
abstract = "Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36{\%} of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. Methods: This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Results: Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57{\%}). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Conclusion: Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.",
keywords = "Adult, Cardiovascular disease, Malaysia, Risk factors, Urban and rural population",
author = "Ismail, {Noor Hassim} and Rosli, {Norazman Mohd} and Diana Mahat and Yusof, {Khairul Hazdi} and Rosnah Ismail",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "71",
pages = "331--337",
journal = "Medical Journal of Malaysia",
issn = "0300-5283",
publisher = "Malaysian Medical Association",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular risk assessment between urban and rural population in Malaysia

AU - Ismail, Noor Hassim

AU - Rosli, Norazman Mohd

AU - Mahat, Diana

AU - Yusof, Khairul Hazdi

AU - Ismail, Rosnah

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. Methods: This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Results: Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Conclusion: Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

AB - Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused significant burden to Malaysia as it accounted for 36% of total deaths. This study aims to evaluate the burden of cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adult and assess the difference between urban and rural population in the selected communities. Methods: This study is part of the ongoing Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) database, whereby the baseline data were collected since June 2008. CVD risk was measured using INTERHEART risk score which comprised of eleven risk factors i.e. age and gender, family history of heart attack, smoking status, exposure to second hand smoke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension status, waist-hip ratio, self-reported stress, depression, dietary habits and physical activity status. Results: Majority of the studied participants had low cardiovascular risk (57%). Participants from rural area were generally older, had lower educational status, higher prevalence of smokers, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and more likely to be depressed. In comparison, urbanites had lower physical activities and more likely to be stressful. Mean INTERHEART score among rural participants were higher, especially for male, in comparison to urbanite (11.5±5.83 vs. 10.01±5.74, p<0.001). Conclusion: Contradict to common beliefs, participants in rural areas generally have higher cardiovascular risk factors compared to their urban counterparts. The rural population should be targeted for focused preventive interventions, taking account the socioeconomic and cultural context.

KW - Adult

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Malaysia

KW - Risk factors

KW - Urban and rural population

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85009754902&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85009754902&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 28087957

AN - SCOPUS:85009754902

VL - 71

SP - 331

EP - 337

JO - Medical Journal of Malaysia

JF - Medical Journal of Malaysia

SN - 0300-5283

IS - 6

ER -