Caffeine and theobromine levels in chocolate couverture and coating products

Nazaruddin Ramli, Suriah A. Rahman, Osman Hassan, Ayuh Mohd Yatim, Mamot Said, Lim Luan Siang, Ng Wai Fong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Thirty-two samples of chocolate products were analysed by HPLC for caffeine and theobromine contents. Defatted residues of samples were extracted with 80% aqueous acetone. After extraction into boiling water, the methylxanthines were identified and quantified with the use of μ-Bondapak column and mobile phase of methanol:water:acetic acid (20:79:1). Levels of caffein and theobromine in 32 samples of chocolate products averaged 0.62-1.14 mg/g and 0.026-0.153 mg/g respectively. Mean values for theobromine and caffeine content for chocolate coating were 0.82 and 0.07 mg/g respectively. The chocolate coating made from fat substitute had theobromine and caffeine levels ranging from 0.36-0.70 mg/g and 0.027-0.061 mg/g respectively, with mean values of 0.49 mg theobromine/g and 0.039 mg caffeine/g. In local chocolate, the mean theobromine and caffeine levels respectively were 0.72 mg/g and 0.04 mg/g in milk chocolate, and 0.85 mg/g and 0.06 mg/g in dark chocolate. Meanwhile, for imported chocolate, the mean theobromine and caffeine levels respectively were 1.05 mg/g and 0.12 mg/g in dark chocolate; 0.76 mg/g and 0.04 mg/g in milk chocolate; and 0.74 mg/g and 0.03 mg/g in white chocolate. Compared with the local chocolates, imported chocolates had higher levels of theobromine and caffeine at 1.141 mg/g and 0.1533mg/g. The average theobromine and caffeine concentrations in local chocolate were 0.082mg/g and 0.066mg/g. Theobromine concentration in chocolate samples is within the range of 0.62mg/g-1.141mg/g and the range of caffeine concentration is 0.026mg/g-0.153mg/g respectively. Bittersweet chocolates were found to have higher theobromine and caffeine concentrations than normal sweet chocolates and milk chocolates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)55-65
Number of pages11
JournalMalaysian Journal of Nutrition
Volume6
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2000

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Theobromine
theobromine
chocolate
caffeine
Caffeine
coatings
milk chocolate
Chocolate
Milk
white chocolate
fat substitutes
sampling
Fat Substitutes
water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Ramli, N., Rahman, S. A., Hassan, O., Yatim, A. M., Said, M., Siang, L. L., & Fong, N. W. (2000). Caffeine and theobromine levels in chocolate couverture and coating products. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, 6(1), 55-65.

Caffeine and theobromine levels in chocolate couverture and coating products. / Ramli, Nazaruddin; Rahman, Suriah A.; Hassan, Osman; Yatim, Ayuh Mohd; Said, Mamot; Siang, Lim Luan; Fong, Ng Wai.

In: Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 6, No. 1, 01.01.2000, p. 55-65.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Ramli, N, Rahman, SA, Hassan, O, Yatim, AM, Said, M, Siang, LL & Fong, NW 2000, 'Caffeine and theobromine levels in chocolate couverture and coating products', Malaysian Journal of Nutrition, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 55-65.
Ramli N, Rahman SA, Hassan O, Yatim AM, Said M, Siang LL et al. Caffeine and theobromine levels in chocolate couverture and coating products. Malaysian Journal of Nutrition. 2000 Jan 1;6(1):55-65.
Ramli, Nazaruddin ; Rahman, Suriah A. ; Hassan, Osman ; Yatim, Ayuh Mohd ; Said, Mamot ; Siang, Lim Luan ; Fong, Ng Wai. / Caffeine and theobromine levels in chocolate couverture and coating products. In: Malaysian Journal of Nutrition. 2000 ; Vol. 6, No. 1. pp. 55-65.
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