BTEX compositions and its potential health impacts in Malaysia

Mohd Talib Latif, Haris Hafizal Abd Hamid, Fatimah PK Ahamad, Firoz Khan, Mohd Shahrul Mohd Nadzir, Murnira Othman, Mazrura Sahani, Muhammad Ikram Abdul Wahab, Noorlin Mohamad, Royston Uning, Seng Chee Poh, Muhammad Fais Fadzil, Justin Sentian, Norhayati Md Tahir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This study aims to determine the composition of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) and assess the risk to health at different sites in Malaysia. Continuous monitoring of BTEX in Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Kuala Terengganu, Kota Kinabalu and Fraser Hill were conducted using Online Gas Chromatograph. For comparison, BTEX at selected hotspot locations were determined by active sampling method using sorbent tubes and Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The hazard quotient (HQ) for non-carcinogenic and the life-time cancer risk (LTCR) of BTEX were calculated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) health risk assessment (HRA) methods. The results showed that the highest total BTEX concentrations using continuous monitoring were recorded in the Kuala Lumpur City Centre (49.56 ± 23.71 μg/m3). Toluene was the most dominant among the BTEX compounds. The average concentrations of benzene ranged from 0.69 ± 0.45 μg/m3 to 6.20 ± 3.51 μg/m3. Measurements using active sampling showed that BTEX concentrations dominated at the roadside (193.11 ± 114.57 μg/m3) in comparison to petrol station (73.08 ± 30.41 μg/m3), petrochemical industry (32.10 ± 13.13 μg/m3) and airport (25.30 ± 6.17 μg/m3). Strong correlations among BTEX compounds (p<0.01, r>0.7) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre showed that BTEX compounds originated from similar sources. The values of HQ at all stations were <1 indicating the non-carcinogenic risk are negligible and do not pose threats to human health. The LTCR value based on benzene inhalation (1.59 × 10−5) at Kuala Lumpur City Centre were between 1 × 10−4 and 1 × 10−5, representing a probable carcinogenic risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124451
JournalChemosphere
Volume237
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019

Fingerprint

Xylenes
Ethylbenzene
BTEX
Malaysia
health impact
Toluene
Xylene
Benzene
Health
Chemical analysis
benzene
hazard
Hazards
ethylbenzene
petrochemical industry
Airports
Sampling
sampling
assessment method
monitoring

Keywords

  • Active sampling
  • BTEX
  • Continuous sampling
  • Health impact
  • Motor vehicles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

BTEX compositions and its potential health impacts in Malaysia. / Latif, Mohd Talib; Abd Hamid, Haris Hafizal; PK Ahamad, Fatimah; Khan, Firoz; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul; Othman, Murnira; Sahani, Mazrura; Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Ikram; Mohamad, Noorlin; Uning, Royston; Poh, Seng Chee; Fadzil, Muhammad Fais; Sentian, Justin; Tahir, Norhayati Md.

In: Chemosphere, Vol. 237, 124451, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Latif, MT, Abd Hamid, HH, PK Ahamad, F, Khan, F, Mohd Nadzir, MS, Othman, M, Sahani, M, Abdul Wahab, MI, Mohamad, N, Uning, R, Poh, SC, Fadzil, MF, Sentian, J & Tahir, NM 2019, 'BTEX compositions and its potential health impacts in Malaysia', Chemosphere, vol. 237, 124451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124451
Latif, Mohd Talib ; Abd Hamid, Haris Hafizal ; PK Ahamad, Fatimah ; Khan, Firoz ; Mohd Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul ; Othman, Murnira ; Sahani, Mazrura ; Abdul Wahab, Muhammad Ikram ; Mohamad, Noorlin ; Uning, Royston ; Poh, Seng Chee ; Fadzil, Muhammad Fais ; Sentian, Justin ; Tahir, Norhayati Md. / BTEX compositions and its potential health impacts in Malaysia. In: Chemosphere. 2019 ; Vol. 237.
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