Blood lead levels of urban and rural malaysian primary school children

Jamal Hisham Hashim, Zailina Hashim, Ariffin Omar, Shamsul Bahari Shamsudin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The objective of this article is to study the influence of exposure and socio-economic variables on the blood lead level of Malaysian school children. Data on respirable lead and blood lead of 346 school children were obtained from Kuala Lumpur (urban), Kemaman (semiurban) and Setiu (rural). Respirable lead and blood lead were highest for Kuala Lumpur (95 ng/m 3 and 5.26 μg/dL) followed by Kemaman (27 ng/m 3 and 2.81μg/dL) and Setiu (15 ng/m 3 and 2.49 μg/dL), and the differences were statistically significant. The percentage of school children with excessive blood lead of 10 Hg/dL or greater was 636 % overall, and highest for Kuala Lumpur (11.73 %). Regression analyses show that urban children are at higher risk of exhibiting excessive blood lead levels. Kuala Lumpur's school children have a 25 times greater risk of having excessive blood lead levels when compared to Kemaman's and Setiu's school children. Respirable and blood lead were correlated (r=0.999, p=0.021). Urban school children acquire higher blood lead levels than their rural and semi-urban counterparts, even after controlling for age, sex, parents' education and income levels. In conclusion, it is time that lead in the Malaysian environment and population be monitored closely, especially its temporal and spatial variability. Only then can a comprehensive preventive strategy be implemented.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)65-70
    Number of pages6
    JournalAsia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
    Volume12
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2000

    Fingerprint

    Sex Education
    Parents
    Regression Analysis
    Economics
    Lead
    Population

    Keywords

    • Blood lead
    • Malaysia
    • Respirable lead
    • Rural
    • School children
    • Urban

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Medicine(all)
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

    Cite this

    Hashim, J. H., Hashim, Z., Omar, A., & Shamsudin, S. B. (2000). Blood lead levels of urban and rural malaysian primary school children. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 12(2), 65-70.

    Blood lead levels of urban and rural malaysian primary school children. / Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina; Omar, Ariffin; Shamsudin, Shamsul Bahari.

    In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2000, p. 65-70.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Hashim, JH, Hashim, Z, Omar, A & Shamsudin, SB 2000, 'Blood lead levels of urban and rural malaysian primary school children', Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 65-70.
    Hashim, Jamal Hisham ; Hashim, Zailina ; Omar, Ariffin ; Shamsudin, Shamsul Bahari. / Blood lead levels of urban and rural malaysian primary school children. In: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health. 2000 ; Vol. 12, No. 2. pp. 65-70.
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