Biolubricant production from palm stearin fatty acids and pentaerythritol

Fatimatuzzahraa Mohd Fadzel, Jumat Salimon, Darfizzi Derawi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Palm stearin was converted to biolubricant through the chemical modification process. Saturated palm stearin fatty acids (SPSFA) and unsaturated palm stearin fatty acids (UPSFA) were reacted with pentaerythritol (PE) via Fischer esterification to produce SPE-ester and UPE-ester. Both esters were successfully synthesized in a three-necked round bottom flask based on four parameters, and these were reaction temperature, reaction time, sulphuric acid (H2SO4) concentration as a catalyst and the molar ratio of reactants fixed to 5:1 for both SPSFA:PE and UPSFA:PE. About 69% of SPE-esters and 61% of UPE-esters were produced. Products characterization was performed by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, proton, and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H- and 13C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis techniques. The presence of ester carboxyl band, v(C=O) was at 1742 cm-1 for both SPE-ester and UPE-ester. SPE-ester and UPE-ester recorded their pour point at 44ºC and 9ºC, the flash point at 243ºC (SPE-ester) and 232ºC (UPE-esters), viscosity index about 140 (SPE-ester) and 151 (UPE-ester), oxidative stability at 269ºC for SPE-ester and 238ºC for UPE-ester. SPE-ester and UPE-ester could be categorized as ISO VG 46 and ISO VG 100 grade lubricant, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)50-63
Number of pages14
JournalMalaysian Journal of Chemistry
Volume21
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

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Fatty acids
Esters
Fatty Acids
pentaerythritol
Chemical modification
Esterification
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Keywords

  • Biolubricant
  • Fischer esterification
  • Palm stearin
  • Pentaerythritol
  • Renewable sources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Biolubricant production from palm stearin fatty acids and pentaerythritol. / Fadzel, Fatimatuzzahraa Mohd; Salimon, Jumat; Derawi, Darfizzi.

In: Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, Vol. 21, No. 2, 01.01.2019, p. 50-63.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fadzel, Fatimatuzzahraa Mohd ; Salimon, Jumat ; Derawi, Darfizzi. / Biolubricant production from palm stearin fatty acids and pentaerythritol. In: Malaysian Journal of Chemistry. 2019 ; Vol. 21, No. 2. pp. 50-63.
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