Biodegradable composite films based on κ-carrageenan reinforced by cellulose nanocrystal from kenaf fibers

Siti Zarina, Ishak Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Through alkali treatment, bleaching, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared from kenaf fibers and were used as reinforcement materials in biocomposites based on κ-carrageenan. Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by solution casting of a mixture of κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and various amounts of CNCs (0 to 8 wt%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that alkali treatment followed by bleaching totally removed lignin and hemicellulose from the kenaf. Morphological analysis of the fibers, cellulose, and κ-carrageenan of biocomposite films were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of filler content on the mechanical and thermal stability of the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films were analyzed through tensile strength measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). At an optimum CNC content of 4%, the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films showed good dispersion, superior mechanical properties, and improved thermal stability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)256-271
Number of pages16
JournalBioResources
Volume10
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Kenaf fibers
carrageenan
Carrageenan
Composite films
Cellulose
Nanocrystals
cellulose
Bleaching
Alkalies
bleaching
Thermodynamic stability
Mechanical stability
Lignin
Glycerol
Sulfuric acid
Field emission
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
Thermogravimetric analysis
Fillers
Hydrolysis

Keywords

  • Cellulose nanocrystals
  • Kenaf
  • Mechanical properties
  • κ-carrageenan biocomposite films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Bioengineering

Cite this

Biodegradable composite films based on κ-carrageenan reinforced by cellulose nanocrystal from kenaf fibers. / Zarina, Siti; Ahmad, Ishak.

In: BioResources, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2015, p. 256-271.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{b2af5c6c030a4ae19986e28f8001392a,
title = "Biodegradable composite films based on κ-carrageenan reinforced by cellulose nanocrystal from kenaf fibers",
abstract = "Through alkali treatment, bleaching, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared from kenaf fibers and were used as reinforcement materials in biocomposites based on κ-carrageenan. Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by solution casting of a mixture of κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and various amounts of CNCs (0 to 8 wt{\%}). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that alkali treatment followed by bleaching totally removed lignin and hemicellulose from the kenaf. Morphological analysis of the fibers, cellulose, and κ-carrageenan of biocomposite films were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of filler content on the mechanical and thermal stability of the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films were analyzed through tensile strength measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). At an optimum CNC content of 4{\%}, the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films showed good dispersion, superior mechanical properties, and improved thermal stability.",
keywords = "Cellulose nanocrystals, Kenaf, Mechanical properties, κ-carrageenan biocomposite films",
author = "Siti Zarina and Ishak Ahmad",
year = "2015",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
pages = "256--271",
journal = "BioResources",
issn = "1930-2126",
publisher = "North Carolina University",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Biodegradable composite films based on κ-carrageenan reinforced by cellulose nanocrystal from kenaf fibers

AU - Zarina, Siti

AU - Ahmad, Ishak

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Through alkali treatment, bleaching, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared from kenaf fibers and were used as reinforcement materials in biocomposites based on κ-carrageenan. Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by solution casting of a mixture of κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and various amounts of CNCs (0 to 8 wt%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that alkali treatment followed by bleaching totally removed lignin and hemicellulose from the kenaf. Morphological analysis of the fibers, cellulose, and κ-carrageenan of biocomposite films were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of filler content on the mechanical and thermal stability of the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films were analyzed through tensile strength measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). At an optimum CNC content of 4%, the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films showed good dispersion, superior mechanical properties, and improved thermal stability.

AB - Through alkali treatment, bleaching, and sulfuric acid hydrolysis, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were prepared from kenaf fibers and were used as reinforcement materials in biocomposites based on κ-carrageenan. Biocomposites in the form of films were prepared by solution casting of a mixture of κ-carrageenan, glycerol, and various amounts of CNCs (0 to 8 wt%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that alkali treatment followed by bleaching totally removed lignin and hemicellulose from the kenaf. Morphological analysis of the fibers, cellulose, and κ-carrageenan of biocomposite films were carried out using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of filler content on the mechanical and thermal stability of the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films were analyzed through tensile strength measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). At an optimum CNC content of 4%, the κ-carrageenan biocomposite films showed good dispersion, superior mechanical properties, and improved thermal stability.

KW - Cellulose nanocrystals

KW - Kenaf

KW - Mechanical properties

KW - κ-carrageenan biocomposite films

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84923650876&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84923650876&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 10

SP - 256

EP - 271

JO - BioResources

JF - BioResources

SN - 1930-2126

IS - 1

ER -